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Table 5 Explanative models for WTP/QALY (estimated by the utilities function)

From: Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences

   Model 3. Quality of life below the median Model 4. Quality of life above the median
  Variable Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI)
Fixed effects High income area 0.299 (-0.265–0.864) 0.709 (0.1989–1.219)
Age -0.013 (-0.032–0.006) -0.017 (-0.033– -0.001)
Female -0.956 (-1.486– -0.426) -0.285 (-0.762–0.193)
High education level 0.801 (0.100–1.501) 0.465 (-0.102–1.032)
Another insurance 1.292 (0.524–2.060) 0.407 (-0.276–1.090)
Adjusted family income (€1,000) 0.659 (-0.004–1.322) 0.667 (0.158–1.177)
Family members 0.025 (-0.159–0.210) 0.204 (0.045–0.362)
Doctor consultations/year 0.026 (0.005–0.046) 0.031 (0.010–0.051)
Tobacco consumption -0.925 (-1.655– -0.195) -0.067 (-0.656–0.523)
Alcohol consumption 0.748(-0.877–2.374) 1.124 (0.068–2.181)
Other drug consumption 4.654 (1.737–7.571) 0.931 (-2.514–4.375)
Inclination to risk (subjective 1–10) 0.093 (0.003–0.183) 0.063 (-0.025–0.152)
Inclination to risk (lottery games) 0.218 (-0.916–1.353) 1.151 (0.447–1.854)
WTP values in descending order 0.401 (-0.071–0.874) -0.046 (-0.496–0.405)
  Constant 4.646 (2.381–6.910) 5.566 (3.732–7.399)
Random Effects Variance of the constant 0.082 (0.005–1.432) 7×10-12 (6×10-20- 0.001)
  Residual variance 2.927 (2.407–3.560) 2.627 (2.161–3.192)
  Intraclass correlation coefficient 0.026 0.017
   Observations = 224 Observations = 223
-2LL = -440.8 -2LL = -425.9
Chi2(14) = 124.64 Chi2(14) = 87.99
   Prob > chi2 = 0.0000 Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
  1. Significant associations: p < 0.05 indicated in bold, p < 0.1 in italic.
  2. The WTP is estimated by payment with out of pocket payments in patients with perceived quality of life above or below the median.
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