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Table 4 Explanative models for WTP/QALY (estimated by the utilities function)

From: Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences

   Model 1. Dependent variable: lnWTP/QALY with out of pocket payments Model 2. Dependent variable: lnWTP/QALY through taxes
  Variable Coefficient (95% CI) Coefficient (95% CI)
Fixed effects High income area 0.507 (0.101–0.913) 0.387 (-0.095–0.868)
Age -0.021 (-0.033– -0.009) -0.037 (-0.051– -0.022)
Female -0.671 (-1.030– -0.311) -0.558 (-0.985– -0.132)
High education level 0.680 (0.234–1.127) 0.758 (0.228–1.287)
Another insurance 0.774 (0.247–1.300) 0.842 (0.219–1.464)
Adjusted family income (€1,000) 0.662 (0.245–1.080) 0.824 (0.331–1.317)
Family members 0.124 (0.001–0.247) 0.108 (-0.037–0.254)
Doctor consultations/year 0.020 (0.005–0.034) 0.016 (-0.001–0.033)
Tobacco consumption -0.515 (-0.985– -0.045) -0.258(-0.815–0.300)
Alcohol consumption 1.081 (0.164–1.997) 1.380 (0.294–2.466)
Other drug consumption 3.192 (1.015–5.369) -0.465 (-2.746–1.816)
Inclination to risk (subjective 1–10) 0.079 (0.015–0.143) 0.068 (-0.008–0.144)
Inclination to risk (lottery games) 0.972 (0.352–1.591) 0.610 (-0.113–1.333)
WTP values in descending order 0.222 (-0.110–0.554) 0.501 (0.109–0.893)
  Constant 5.495 (4.030–6.960) 6.445 (4.717–8.174)
Random Effects Variance of the constant 0.053 (0.005–0.537) 0.079 (0.008–0.770)
  Residual variance 3.001 (2.624–3.434) 4.202 (3.673–4.807)
  Intraclass correlation coefficient 0.017 0.018
   Observations = 447 Observations = 449
-2LL = -883.3 -2LL = -963.0
Chi2(14) = 202.92 Chi2(14) = 182.15
   Prob > chi2 = 0.0000 Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
  1. Significant associations: p < 0.05 indicated in bold, p < 0.1 indicated in italic.