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Table 4 Differences in respondents’ utilization of PHC services based on their demographic and socioeconomic status

From: The long walk to universal health coverage: patterns of inequities in the use of primary healthcare services in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

Variable description n (%) Urban Rural
Male (65) Female (143) Male (36) Female (116)
Highest educational qualification No formal 9(13.8) 4(2.8) 17(47.2) 15(12.9)
Primary 9(13.8) 10(7.0) 10(27.8) 12(10.3)
Secondary 20(30.8) 35(24.5) 7(19.4) 25(21.6)
Tertiary 40(61.5) 87(60.8) 14(38.9) 46(39.7)
Occupation Unemployed 38(58.5) 60(42.0) 14 (38.9) 45 (38.8)
  Student/trainee 55(84.6) 50(35.0) 30(83.3) 45(38.8)
Farmer 30(46.2) 15(10.5) 25(69.4) 35(30.2)
Artisan 40( 61.5) 84(58.7) 30(83.3) 95(81.9)
Small scale business (E.g., Petty trading) 65(100) 105(73.4) 25(69.4) 69(59.5)
Medium/ large scale business 45(69.2) 45(31.5) 25(69.4) 39(33.7)
Teacher 40(61.5) 115(80.4) 30(83.3) 100(86.2)
Civil servant 50(76.9) 135(94.4) 20(55.6) 100(86.2)
Functional assets owned Radio 63(96.9) 133(93) 36(100) 116(100)
Television 65(100) 140(97.9) 30(83.3) 67(57.8)
Bicycle 40(61.5) 35(24.5) 25(69.4) 56(48.3)
Air conditioner 60(92.3) 138(96.5) 30(83.3) 57(49.1)
Car 58(89.2) 100(69.9) 28(77.8) 22(19.0)
Motor cycle 30(46.2) 30(21.0) 30(83.3) 30(25.9)
Refrigerator 46(70.8) 136(95.1) 36(100) 93(80.2)
Rechargeable lamp 60(92.3) 100(69.9) 30(83.3) 60(51.7)
Electric fan 64(98.5) 134(93.7) 28(77.8) 34(29.3)
Kerosene lamp 64(98.5) 138(96.5) 36(100) 107(92.2)
Socioeconomic status (in quartiles) Q1 (most poor) 16(24.6) 36(25.1) 9(25) 29(25)
Q2 (very poor) 16(24.6) 35 (24.5) 9(25) 29(25)
Q3 (poor) 16(24.6) 35 (24.5) 9(25) 29(25)
Q4 (least poor) 17(26.2) 37 (25.9) 9(25) 29(25)
  Total 65(100) 143(100) 36(100) 116(100)
  Q1/Q4 (poor-rich ratio) 0.94 0.97 1.0 1.0