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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients undergoing isolated major surgery

From: Racial disparities in the use of blood transfusion in major surgery

Characteristics CABG Total hip replacement Colectomy
White Black White Black White Black
(n = 23,113) (n = 2,736) (n = 37,888) (n = 5,045) (n = 6,861) (n = 1,394)
RBC transfused (%) 10,284 (44.5) 1,599 (58.4) 10,680 (28.2) 1,701 (33.7) 1,341 (19.6) 314 (22.5)
Age, median (IQR) 65 (58-73) 61 (55-69) 63 (55-72) 57 (49-65) 62 (50-73) 59 (48-68)
Female 5,124 (22.2) 1,135 (41.5) 20,552 (54.2) 2,738 (54.3)# 3,403 (49.6) 720 (51.7)#
Primary payer       
Private 8,802 (38.1) 761 (27.8) 17,849 (47.1) 1,772 (35.1) 3,082 (44.9) 389 (27.9)
Medicare 11,441 (49.5) 1,291 (47.2) 17,067 (45.1) 2,035 (40.3) 2,984 (43.5) 540 (38.7)
Medicaid 1,032 (4.5) 330 (12.1) 1,446 (3.8) 798 (15.8) 338 (4.9) 236 (16.9)
Self-pay 697 (3.0) 164 (6.0) 324 (0.9) 108 (2.1) 209 (3.1) 105 (7.5)
Other 1,120 (4.9) 181 (6.6) 1,163 (3.1) 324 (6.4) 241 (3.5) 122 (8.8)
Admission status       
Emergent 4,749 (20.6) 817 (29.9) 1,099 (2.9) 141 (2.8)# 1,508 (22.0) 464 (33.3)
Urgent 6,715 (29.1) 763 (27.9) 895 (2.4) 170 (3.4) 702 (10.2) 141 (10.1)#
Elective 11,615 (50.3) 1,152 (42.1) 35,818 (94.5) 4,725 (93.7) 4,602 (67.1) 763 (54.7)
Trauma 6 (0.03) 1 (0.04) 67 (0.2) 7 (0.2)# 43 (0.6) 22 (1.6)
Comorbidity       
Congestive heart failure 59 (0.3) 14 (0.5) 877 (2.3) 169 (3.4) 364 (5.3) 101 (7.3)
Valve disease 29 (0.1) 5 (0.2)# 1,475 (3.9) 96 (1.9) 326 (4.8) 45 (3.2)
Pulmonary circ disease 19 (0.1) 3 (0.1)# 300 (0.8) 76 (1.5) 104 (1.5) 31 (2.2)#
Periphery vascular disease 3,557 (15.4) 490 (17.9) 756 (2.0) 96 (1.9)# 333 (4.9) 57 (4.1)#
Hypertension 16,100 (69.7) 1,706 (62.4) 19,924 (52.6) 3,250 (64.4) 3,129 (45.6) 818 (58.7)
Paralysis 111 (0.5) 22 (0.8) 108 (0.3) 19 (0.4)# 61 (0.9) 18 (1.3)#
Other neurology disorder 715 (3.1) 84 (3.1)# 1,306 (3.5) 147 (2.9) 295 (4.3) 49 (3.5)#
Chronic pulmonary disease 4,557 (19.7) 520 (19.0)# 4,732 (12.5) 806 (16.0) 987 (14.4) 176 (12.6)#
Diabetes w/o complications 7,148 (30.9) 1,071 (39.1) 3,816 (10.1) 827 (16.4) 889 (13.0) 285 (20.4)
Diabetes with complications 1,757 (7.6) 319 (11.7) 417 (1.1) 83 (1.65) 136 (2.0) 35 (2.5)#
Hypothyroid 2,316 (10.0) 160 (5.9) 5,082 (13.4) 288 (5.7) 703 (10.3) 64 (4.6)
Renal failure 3,129 (13.5) 711 (26.0) 1,321 (3.5) 357 (7.1) 395 (5.8) 123 (8.8)
Liver disease 411 (1.8) 58 (2.1)# 535 (1.4) 127 (2.5) 170 (2.5) 26 (1.9)#
Peptic ulcer 9 (0.04) 0 (0.0)# 7 (0.02) 0 (0.0)# 3 (0.04) 1 (0.07)#
AIDS 27 (0.12) 15 (0.6) 88 (0.2) 69 (1.4) 8 (0.1) 7 (0.5)
Lymphoma 122 (0.5) 11 (0.4)# 240 (0.6) 34 (0.7)# 47 (0.7) 7 (0.5)#
Metastatic cancer 50 (0.2) 3 (0.1)# 225 (0.6) 21 (0.4)# 962 (14.0) 208 (14.9)#
Tumor w/o metastasis 328 (1.4) 44 (1.6)# 263 (0.7) 23 (0.5) 205 (3.0) 43 (3.1)#
Rheumatoid arthritis 478 (2.1) 66 (2.4)# 1,460 (3.9) 335 (6.6) 179 (2.6) 31 (2.2)#
Coagulopathy* 121 (0.5) 12 (0.4)# 183 (0.5) 14 (0.3) 32 (0.5) 4 (0.3)#
Obese 4,564 (19.8) 566 (20.7)# 4,955 (13.1) 864 (17.1) 696 (10.1) 178 (12.8)
Weight loss 204 (0.9) 34 (1.2)# 110 (0.3) 26 (0.5) 317 (4.6) 91 (6.5)
Fluid electrolyte disorder 1,112 (4.8) 195 (7.1) 718 (1.9) 108 (2.1)# 467 (6.8) 149 (10.7)
Blood loss anemia 48 (0.2) 14 (0.5) 62 (0.2) 9 (0.2)# 93 (1.4) 47 (3.4)
Deficiency anemia 1,880 (8.1) 476 (17.4) 1,913 (5.1) 423 (8.4) 934 (13.6) 262 (18.8)
Alcohol abuse 804 (3.5) 135 (4.9) 693 (1.8) 137 (2.7) 167 (2.4) 66 (4.7)
Drug abuse 296 (1.3) 161 (5.9) 334 (0.9) 170 (3.4) 85 (1.2) 58 (4.2)
Psychoses 374 (1.6) 49 (1.8)# 657 (1.7) 119 (2.4) 154 (2.2) 49 (3.5)
Depression 1,906 (8.3) 149 (5.5) 4,660 (12.3) 394 (7.8) 628 (9.2) 68 (4.9)
  1. Unless otherwise indicated, results are presented as number of patients and percentages.
  2. Abbreviations: IQR inter-quartile range, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome. All p values < 0.05 except marked with #.
  3. *This refers to the newly defined coagulopathy used in the analysis, which recoded ICD-9 codes of 286.6, 286.7, 286.9, 287.4, and 287.5 as 0 for this comorbidity variable. The reason for the recoding is that the coagulopathy codes could be complications related to blood transfusion.