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Table 3 Primary health care (PHC) worker knowledge about the causes of, and risk factors for, mental illness (n = 151)

From: Perceived challenges and opportunities arising from integration of mental health into primary care: a cross-sectional survey of primary health care workers in south-west Ethiopia

Reported risk factors n (%)
Supernatural  
Evil eye 34 (22.5)
Evil spirit 20 (13.2)
Attack from the devil 26 (17.2)
Magic 44 (29.1)
Due to sins committed 18 (11.9)
Will of God 20 (13.0)
Curse 31 (20.5)
Biological  
Genetic exposure 87 (57.6)
Use of psychoactive substances 144 (95.4)
Neurochemical imbalance 123 (81.5)
Psychosocial  
Financial constraint 87 (57.6)
Loss of loved one 86 (57.0)
Academic failure 86 (57.0)
Conflict in marriage 104 (68.9)
Unemployment 86 (57.0)
Divorce 99 (65.6)
Work overload 69 (45.7)
Physical or sexual abuse 120 (79.5)