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Table 1 Contrasting modes of commissioning

From: How managed a market? Modes of commissioning in England and Germany

  Case-mix commissioning Surrogate planning
Managerial Performance Case-mix modelling + audit + subscriber marketing. Service planning for geographical population.
Negotiated order Consensus, multi-stakeholder model + episode-based. Principal-agent + micro-commissioning
Discursive control Emic solidarity + juridical rights + case-mix data. Emic political authority + EBM
Financial incentives Fixed tariffs. Pay for performance (defined prospectively) + ad hoc + fixed tariffs.
Provider competition None: referral 'framing' at most. Competition or bilateral monopoly.
Juridical Comprehensive regulation + administrative law. Unwritten constitution + common law.