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Table 4 Geographic differences in payment and coping mechanisms

From: Viewing health expenditures, payment and coping mechanisms with an equity lens in Nigeria

Variables Rural Peri-urban Urban p-value R:U ratio
Out-of-Pocket but reimbursed 6(43) 1(7) 7(50) 0.051 0.86
Out-of-Pocket without reimbursement 369(36) 382(37) 284(27) 0.24 1.3
Health Insurance 2(50) 1(25) 1(25) 0.82 2
Instalment 36(34) 45(43) 24(23) 0.28 1.5
In-kind 1(17) 1(17) 4(66) 0.11 0.25
Others 8(24) 7(21) 18(55) 0.003 0.44
Payment coping mechanisms by geographic location (%)
Own money 385(36) 395(37) 286(27) 0.004 1.35
Borrowed money 8(26) 7(23) 16(51) 0.01 0.5
Sold moveable assets 0 0 1(100) 0.28 0
Sold family land 0 0 0 N/A 0
Payment subsidised 13(46) 1(4) 14(50) 0.001 0.93
Payment deferred 7(78) 1(11) 1(11) 0.03 7
Community solidarity/someone else paid 2(11) 12(63) 5(26) 0.03 0.4
Exempted 3(37) 1(13) 4(50) 0.26 0.75
Others 3(21) 3(21) 8(58) 0.03 0.38