Skip to main content

Table 4 Socio-demographic characteristics by clusters

From: Exploring consumers’ attitudes towards informal patient payments using the combined method of cluster and multinomial regression analysis - the case of Hungary

Group 1 2 3 Total Missing
N 311 316 297 924 113
Socio- demographic characteristics
Age group      
<35 104 (33.4%)* 100 (31.7%) 87 (29.3%) 291 (31.5%) 36 (31.9%)
35-59 119 (38.3%)** 148 (46.8%) 130 (43.8%) 397 (43.0%) 33 (29.2%)***
≥60 88 (21.9%)*** 68 (18.0%)*** 80 (26.9%) 236 (25.5%) 44 (38.9%)***
Gender      
Man 144 (46.3%) 140 (44.3%)** 151 (50.8%) 435(47.1%) 46 (40.7%)
Woman 167 (53.7%) 176 (55.7%)** 146 (49.2%) 489(52.9%) 67 (59.3%)***
Residence      
Village 71 (22.8%)*** 101 (32.0%) 92 (31.0%) 264 (28.6%) 39 (34.5%)
Town 166 (53.4%) 182 (57.6%)*** 149 (50.2%) 497 (53.8%) 55 (48.7%)
Capital 74 (23.8%)*** 33 (10.4%)*** 56 (18.9%) 163 (17.6%) 19 (16.8%)
Education      
Primary 64 (20.6%) 40 (12.7%)*** 71 (23.9%) 175 (18.9%) 35 (31.0%)***
Secondary/vocational 197 (63.3%) 233 (73.7%)*** 198 (66.6%) 628 (68.0%) 67 (59.3%)**
Tertiary 50 (16.1%)*** 43 (13.6%)** 28 (9.4%) 121 (13.1%) 11 (9.7%)
Health      
Very bad. bad 43 (13.8%) 28 (8.9%)** 38 (12.8%) 109 (11.8%) 14 (12.4%)
Fair 82 (26.4%) 79 (25.0%)** 90 (30.3%) 251 (27.2%) 33 (29.2%)
Good 98 (31.5%) 134 (42.4%)*** 88 (29.6%) 320 (34.6%) 35 (31.0%)
Very Good. excellent 88 (28.3%) 75 (23.7%) 81 (27.3%) 244 (26.4%) 31 (27.4%)
Age      
Mean 46.4 44.6*** 47.0 46.0 49.4*
SD (18.4) (15.9) (17.2) (17.2) (19.96)
Income (HUF), 1 EUR ~ 285 HUF      
Mean 164 727** 188 230*** 152 787 168 697 157 021***
SD (81 808) (100 351) (100 081) (95 441) (79 959)
N 301 299 292 892 105
Household      
Mean 2.6 2.9*** 2.5 2.7 2.5
SD (1.2) (1.3) (1.3) (1.3) (1.5)
Past utilization and payments     
Physician visit      
N 310 315 296 921 112
Not visited 60 (19.4%) 55 (17.5%) 61 (20.6%) 176 (19.1%) 31 (27.7%)**
Visited and not paid 158 (51.0%)*** 211 (67.0%)** 214 (72.3%) 583 (63.3%) 69 (61.6%)
Visited and paid 92 (29.7%)*** 49 (15.6%)*** 21 (7.1%) 162 (17.6%) 12 (10.7%)*
Hospitalization      
N 311 315 297 923 113
Not hospitalized 228 (73.3%)*** 258 (81.9%) 239 (80.5%) 725 (78.6%) 92 (81.4%)
hospitalized not paid 34 (10.9%)** 27 (8.6%)*** 45 (15.2%) 106 (11.5%) 16 (14.2%)
hospitalized and paid 49 (15.8%)*** 30 (9.5%)*** 13 (4.4%) 92 (10.0%) 5 (4.4)**
  1. stars indicate significant difference from the 3 rd group in terms of mean (t test), or proportion (z-test).
  2. in the case of “missing” group stars indicate significant difference from the Total.
  3. * p < 0,1; ** p < 0,05; *** p < 0,01.