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Table 3 Factors influencing ANC/PNC use and post-partum modern FP use among women who had a childbirth within the last five years, Zambia, 2007

From: Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia

Characteristic Distribution % or mean (95% C.I.) ANC/PNC service intensity Post-partum modern FP use
Coef. (95% C.I.) Hazard ratio (95% C.I.)1
(1) (2) (3)
Median duration from childbirth to modern contraceptive adoption (months) 8   
Timing of first ANC visits    
None 2.56   
1st trimester 19.57   
2nd trimester 70.03   
3rd trimester 7.85   
Had more than 4 ANC visits    
No 40.09   
Yes 59.91   
Use of PNC services    
No 48.84   
Yes 51.16   
ANC and PNC service intensity score −.02 (−1.22; 1.13) 1.09 (1.01; 1.16)*
Urban 33.65 .25 (.15; .36)*** .92 (.78; 1.08)
Region    
Central 9.97 1.00
Copperbelt 15.23 .21 (.09; .33)** 1.17 (.95; 1.46)
Eastern 15.21 .35 (.23; .46)*** .79 (.63; .98)*
Luapula 7.81 .06 (−.07; .19) .67 (.51; .87)**
Lusaka 12.74 .35 (.22; .48) 1.07 (.87; 1.33)
Northern 14.90 −.08 (−.19; .04) 1.30 (1.06; 1.61)*
Northwestern 5.65 .03 (−.12; .18) 1.23 (.99; 1.54)
Southern 11.01 .03 (−.09; .15) 1.11 (.90; 1.36)
Western 7.48 .33 (.19; 47)*** 1.06 (.85; 1.32)
Age group    
15 – 19 8.70 1.00
20 – 24 24.24 .04 (−.08; .15) 1.03 (.83; 1.28)
25 – 29 26.56 −.02 (−.13; .10) .93 (.74; 1.16)
30 – 34 19.15 .01 (−.12; .13) .88 (.69; 1.13)
35 – 39 11.86 .11 (−.03; .24) .75 (.58; .99)*
40 – 44 9.49 .02 (−.12; .16) .54 (.40; 73)***
Highest education level    
No education 13.12 1.00
Primary school 60.19 .29 (.20; .37)*** 1.33 (1.10; 1.60)**
Secondary school or higher 26.69 .41 (.31; .52)*** 1.55 (1.25; 1.91)***
Wealth quintile    
Poorest 21.73 1.00
Poor 20.88 .05 (−.03; .14) .97 (.81; 1.16)
Middle 19.64 .16 (.07; .25)*** 1.06 (.89; 1.26)
Rich 21.13 .31 (.18; .43)*** 1.28 (1.03; 1.58)*
Richest 16.62 .31 (.15; .46)*** 1.52 (1.17; 1.96)**
Religion    
Catholic 19.32 1.00
Protestant/Other Christians 78.76 .01 (−.06; .08) 1.02 (.88; 1.13)
Muslim/Others 1.92 −.64 (−.85; -.42)*** .84 (.55; 1.28)
Marital status    
Not married 20.35 1.00
Married, monogamous 67.79 −.02 (−.09; .06) 2.66 (2.29; 3.08)***
Married, polygamous 11.86 −.10 (−.21; .01) 2.32 (1.88; 2.86)***
Work in the last 12 months    
No 43.13 1.00
Yes 56.87 .01 (−.05; .07) 1.15 (1.04; 1.28)**
Age at first birth 18.60 (15; 36) .01 (−.01; .01)
Use of modern contraceptives prior to last childbirth    
No 47.47 1.00
Yes 52.53 .02 (−.04; .09) 1.26 (1.13; 1.41)**
Desire for more children   
No 33.64   1.00
Yes 66.36   .96 (.85; 1.09)
Knowledge of modern contraceptives (range: 1–11) 6.77 (3; 11) 1.04 (1.01; 1.07)**
Visited and talked about FP by a field worker in the last 12 months   
No 92.19   1.00
Yes 7.81   1.18 (1.00; 1.39)
Visited and talked about FP at a health facility in the last 12 months    
No 67.56   1.00
Yes 32.44   1.29 (1.16; 1.44)***
Heard FP messages on the radio in the last few months   
No 61.88   1.00
Yes 38.12   1.11 (.99; 1.24)
Saw FP messages on TV in the last few months   
No 83.54   1.00
Yes 16.46   .92 (.78; 1.09)
Read FP messages in newspapers in the last few months   
No 91.81   1.00
Yes 8.19   1.03 (.85; 1.24)
N 3,587   
  1. 1Model controls for durations of breastfeeding and amenorrhea.
  2. † p<.010; * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001.