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Table 3 Results of logistic regression models for leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA)

From: A population-based analysis of leaving the hospital against medical advice: incidence and associated variables

  Excluding prior AMA variable Including prior AMA variable
  Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Between-individual parameters     
Age (per decade) 0.73* 0.72, 0.74 0.82* 0.80, 0.83
Male sex 1.21* 1.16, 1.26 1.48* 1.41, 1.55
Prior AMA event -- -- 170.0* 156.2, 185.1
Socioeconomic status (5th [highest] urban quintile as reference group)  
Urban 1st quintile (lowest) 3.58* 3.21, 3.99 2.54* 2.28, 2.83
Urban 2nd quintile 2.07* 1.84, 2.33 1.78* 1.58, 2.00
Urban 3rd quintile 1.64* 1.45, 1.86 1.41* 1.24, 1.59
Urban 4th quintile 1.20† 1.05, 1.38 1.13 0.99, 1.30
Rural 1st quintile (lowest) 2.48* 2.19, 2.79 1.88* 1.66, 2.13
Rural 2nd quintile 1.49* 1.31, 1.69 1.33* 1.16, 1.52
Rural 3rd quintile 1.30* 1.14, 1.49 1.20‡ 1.05, 1.38
Rural 4th quintile 1.39* 1.22, 1.59 1.20‡ 1.04, 1.38
Rural 5th quintile (highest) 1.33* 1.16, 1.52 1.29† 1.13, 1.47
Not calculated § 1.49* 1.25, 1.79 1.61* 1.33, 1.94
Hospital (urban community hospitals as reference group)  
Urban tertiary hospital 1 1.18* 1.10, 1.26 1.07 1.00, 1.15
Urban tertiary hospital 2 0.87† 0.80, 0.94 0.85† 0.78, 0.92
Urban tertiary hospital 3 0.84† 0.76, 0.93 0.76* 0.68, 0.85
Rural hospitals 1.25* 1.16, 1.35 0.96 0.88, 1.05
Chronic co-morbid conditions  
Alcohol abuse 3.82* 3.56, 4.11 1.39* 1.24, 1.55
HIV/AIDS 2.87* 2.04, 4.04 0.93 0.52, 1.67
Drug abuse 2.19* 1.99, 2.42 0.85 0.73, 1.00
Weight loss 1.93* 1.40, 2.64 1.70‡ 1.12, 2.60
Blood loss anemia 1.68† 1.25, 2.27 1.01 0.67, 1.51
Diabetes 1.52* 1.41, 1.64 0.97 0.88, 1.07
Deficiency anemia 1.38* 1.13, 1.68 0.80 0.60, 1.05
Peripheral vascular disease 1.36† 1.15, 1.61 0.92 0.77, 1.11
Fluid and electrolyte disorders 1.34* 1.18, 1.53 0.64* 0.52, 0.79
Valvular disease 1.29‡ 1.05, 1.59 1.01 0.79, 1.29
Liver disease 1.26‡ 1.09, 1.45 0.87 0.70, 1.09
Other neurological disorders 1.24* 1.11, 1.37 0.75† 0.63, 0.88
Peptic ulcer disease without bleeding 1.24 0.95, 1.61 0.69 0.46, 1.04
Chronic pulmonary disease 1.23* 1.12, 1.36 0.84‡ 0.75, 0.95
Paralysis 1.21‡ 0.98, 1.49 0.79 0.59, 1.06
Coagulopathy 1.20 0.94, 1.53 0.62‡ 0.43, 0.90
Hypertension, complicated 1.09 0.85, 1.39 0.78 0.58, 1.04
Obesity 1.09 0.92, 1.30 0.99 0.79, 1.25
Congestive heart failure 1.07 0.96, 1.20 0.96 0.85, 1.09
Renal failure 1.06 0.90, 1.26 0.82 0.68, 1.00
Solid tumor without metastasis 1.04 0.85, 1.27 0.81‡ 0.67, 0.99
Rheumatoid arthritis/collagen-vascular disorders 1.04 0.86, 1.26 0.87 0.70, 1.07
Metastatic cancer 0.96 0.81, 1.14 0.84‡ 0.71, 1.00
Lymphoma 0.91 0.67, 1.23 0.85 0.65, 1.11
Depression 0.89‡ 0.80, 0.99 0.52* 0.45, 0.62
Psychoses 0.87‡ 0.76, 1.00 0.60* 0.49, 0.72
Pulmonary circulation disorders 0.85 0.62, 1.17 0.74 0.51, 1.07
Arrhythmia 0.81† 0.72, 0.91 0.69* 0.60, 0.78
Hypertension, uncomplicated 0.74* 0.67, 0.81 0.78* 0.70, 0.86
Hypothyroidism 0.70† 0.57, 0.86 0.80‡ 0.64, 1.00
Most responsible hospital diagnosis (cardiovascular disorders as reference group)   
Poisoning by pharmaceuticals or alcohol 2.72* 2.25, 3.28 4.16* 3.31, 5.23
Intracranial injuries without skull fracture 2.10* 1.69, 2.61 3.34* 2.64, 4.23
Tuberculosis 2.02* 1.46, 2.79 1.39 0.88, 2.20
Alcohol or drug abuse 1.91* 1.65, 2.20 2.69* 2.25, 3.21
Injuries with open wounds 1.91* 1.62, 2.26 1.71* 1.39, 2.12
Diabetic ketoacidosis 1.69† 1.24, 2.30 0.59‡ 0.38, 0.92
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue 1.44* 1.21, 1.72 1.37‡ 1.11, 1.68
Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions 1.31† 1.14, 1.50 1.08 0.91, 1.28
Injury and poisoning|| 1.14‡ 1.01, 1.29 1.27† 1.11, 1.45
Alcohol-related liver disease 1.06 0.72, 1.56 1.92‡ 1.02, 3.63
Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, immune disorders 1.05 0.85, 1.29 0.86 0.62, 1.19
Mental disorders** 0.96 0.82, 1.13 1.22‡ 1.01, 1.48
Diseases of the digestive system†† 0.86‡ 0.76, 0.97 0.62* 0.54, 0.72
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system & connective tissue 0.84‡ 0.71, 1.00 0.67* 0.56, 0.80
Diseases of the respiratory system 0.83‡ 0.72, 0.96 0.82‡ 0.69, 0.96
Infectious and parasitic diseases except tuberculosis 0.61† 0.46, 0.79 0.79 0.58, 1.08
Diseases of nervous system and sense organs 0.59* 0.47, 0.73 0.58* 0.45, 0.74
Diseases of blood and blood-forming organs 0.58† 0.38, 0.87 0.62‡ 0.39, 0.99
Diseases of the genitourinary system 0.56* 0.47, 0.65 0.45* 0.38, 0.54
Neoplasms 0.52* 0.42, 0.64 0.61* 0.50, 0.75
Factors influencing health status, congenital abnormalities, or conditions originating in the perinatal period 0.38* 0.33, 0.45 0.47* 0.40, 0.56
Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, puerperium 0.27* 0.24, 0.30 0.33* 0.29, 0.38
Major surgical procedure 0.30* 0.28, 0.32 0.39* 0.36, 0.43
Time period (1990–93 as reference group)  
1994-1998 0.96 0.90, 1.03 0.82* 0.76, 0.89
1999-2003 0.91† 0.86, 0.97 0.91‡ 0.84, 0.98
2004-2008 0.99 0.93, 1.05 1.03 0.96, 1.11
Within-individual parameters
Age (per decade) 1.02 0.97, 1.07 1.01 0.96, 1.07
Major surgical procedure 0.32* 0.30, 0.34 0.32* 0.30, 0.34
  1. * p < 0.0001.
  2. † p ≥ 0.0001 and < 0.001.
  3. ‡ p ≥ 0.001 and < 0.05.
  4. § Includes postal codes for which average household income was not calculated, primarily institutions such as nursing homes, other chronic care facilities and prisons.
  5. || Except for intracranial injuries without skull fracture, injuries with open wounds, and poisonings by pharmaceuticals or alcohol.
  6. ¶ Except for diabetic ketoacidosis.
  7. ** Except for alcohol or drug abuse.
  8. †† Except for alcohol-related liver disease.