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Table 2 Effect of nurse working hours on patient safety grade and number of adverse events reported

From: The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture

  Working hours per week P value Odds ratio 95% CI
Patient safety grade
Japan <40   1.00  
  40–60 0.31 0.92 0.78–1.08
  ≥60 0.01* 0.65 0.46–0.90
U.S. <40   1.00  
  40–60 0.11 1.03 0.99–1.06
  ≥60 <0.001** 0.82 0.78–0.88
Taiwan <40   1.00  
  40–60 0.47 1.06 0.90–1.26
  ≥60 0.18 0.84 0.64–1.09
Number of events reported
Japan <40   1.00  
  40–60 <0.001** 1.72 1.41–2.09
  ≥60 <0.001** 2.74 1.68–4.47
U.S. <40   1.00  
  40–60 <0.001** 1.08 1.05–1.11
  ≥60 0.002** 1.11 1.04–1.18
Taiwan <40   1.00  
  40–60 0.009** 1.23 1.05–1.43
  ≥60 <0.001** 1.85 1.45–2.36
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01; CI, confidence interval.