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Table 1 Distribution of care patterns according to the characteristics of participants in the Age Study

From: Does informal care reduce public care expenditure on elderly care? Estimates based on Finland’s Age Study

  All   Informal care only for elderly living alone Informal care only from a co-resident family member A combination of formal and informal care Formal care only Missing care information P-value of
Chi-squared test
  (n = 732)   (n = 184)   (n = 151)   (n = 337)   (n = 45)   (n = 15)   
Variable n/mean % n/mean % n/mean % n/mean % n/mean % n/mean %  
Age group              
65–74 215 30 51 28 71 47 75 22 14 31 4 27  
75–84 356 49 95 52 63 42 169 50 20 45 9 60  
85+ 161 21 38 20 17 11 93 28 11 24 2 13 <0.0001
Gender              
Male 101 14 16 9 34 23 40 12 11 25 0 0  
Female 631 86 168 91 117 77 297 88 34 75 15 100 0.0003
Financial situation              
Good 141 19 28 15 31 20 71 21 7 16 4 27  
Average 502 69 138 75 98 65 228 67 31 68 7 46  
Poor 89 12 18 10 22 15 38 11 7 16 4 27 NS
Self-assessed health              
Good 29 4 6 3 10 7 12 4 1 2 0 0  
Average 477 65 116 63 100 66 220 65 29 65 12 80  
Poor 226 31 62 34 41 27 105 31 15 33 3 20 NS
IADL              
Good 170 23 79 43 37 25 43 13 7 16 4 27  
Medium 402 55 96 52 72 48 201 60 23 51 10 67  
Poor 160 22 9 5 42 27 93 27 15 33 1 6 <0.0001
FIM™ score§              
Limited physical function score <120 449 61 79 43 71 47 252 75 37 82 10 67 <0.0001
GDS score*              
Depressive mood score >7 74 10 14 8 11 7 41 12 6 13 2 13 NS
MMSE score†              
Declined cognitive capacity score <24 210 29 40 22 30 20 119 35 17 38 4 27 0.0007
Mean HRQoL 15D‡ 0.73   0.76   0.74   0.72   0.72   0.75   0.0013
  1. § FIM: Functional Independence Measure, maximum score 126, three subscales (Self Care, 8 items; Mobility, 5 items; Cognition 5 items) were formed from 18 items (range: 1 = total assistance–7 = complete independence).
  2. * GDS: Geriatric Depression Scale, maximum score 15, values 0–6 indicate non-depressive state.
  3. † MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination, maximum score 30, values under 24 indicate existence of dementia.
  4. ‡ 15D: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), range 0–1, 1 indicates the best imaginable health.