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Table 1 Comparison of first visit characteristics among patients retained, discharged, and defaulted

From: Into the abyss: diabetes process of care indicators and outcomes of defaulters from a Canadian tertiary care multidisciplinary diabetes clinic

First visit characteristics Overall (N = 193) Retained (R) (N = 59) Discharged (D/C) (N = 46) Defaulted (DF) (N = 88) Over all p-value R vs. D/C R vs. DF D/C vs. DF
 Age (mean, SD) 59.1 (12.3) 59.1 (9.9) 60.6 (14) 58.3 (12.9) 0.5944    
 Male (%) 106 (54.9) 28 (47.5) 25 (54.4) 53 (60.2) 0.3112    
 Distance from clinic (km)(median, IQR) 12.4 (7.4–20.5) 14.2 (7.9–20.7) 13.4 (7.2–17.8) 10.7 (7.5–23.9) 0.7194    
 Urban (%) 174 (90.2) 51 (86.4) 45 (97.8) 78 (88.6) 0.1227 0.0741 0.6906 0.0967
 Number of re-referrals (%) 36 (18.8) 14 (24.1%) 3 (6.5%) 19 (21.6%) 0.0477 0.0158 0.7188 0.0254
Medical history         
 Duration DM2 (years) – (median, IQR) 6 (1–12) 8 (2–15) 2.5 (1–8.5) 7 (2.5–12) 0.0187 0.0146 0.7622 0.0114
 Hypertension (%) 142 (74) 44 (74.6) 34 (75.6) 64 (72.7) 0.9321    
 Dyslipidemia (%) 154 (83.7) 49 (86.0) 36 (83.7) 69 (82.1) 0.8338    
 Psychiatric disease (%) 41 (21.9) 16 (27.6) 7 (15.6) 18 (21.4) 0.3388    
Macrovascular complications         
 CAD (%) 41 (22.5) 16 (28.6) 8 (18.2) 17 (20.7) 0.4066    
 PVD (%) 11 (6.0) 5 (8.5) 1 (2.3) 5 (6.1) 0.5275    
 CVA/TIA (%) 10 (5.3) 6 (10.2) 0 4 (4.7) 0.0719 0.0380 0.3170 0.3005
 Any macrovascular complications (%) 51 (28.3) 21 (36.8) 8 (18.6) 22 (27.5) 0.1311 0.0466 0.2455 0.2733
Microvascular complications         
 Nephropathy (%) 49 (27.1) 18 (31.6) 9 (20.9) 22 (27.2) 0.4945    
 Retinopathy (%) 26 (17.6) 12 (23.5) 2 (5.9) 12 (19.1) 0.1026 0.0316 0.5595 0.1281
 Neuropathy (%) 49 (26.9) 13 (22.4) 7 (16.3) 29 (35.8) 0.0424 0.4443 0.0901 0.0226
 Any microvascular complications (%) 79 (40.9) 24 (47.1) 13 (33.3) 42 (59.2) 0.0328 0.1897 0.1860 0.0096
Disease status         
 HbA1c (%)(mean, SD) 8.5 (1.9) 8.6 (1.8) 7.9 (1.9) 8.7 (1.9) 0.0609 0.0669 0.6694 0.0243
 HbA1c (IFCC units mmol/mol) 69 70 63 72     
 HbA1c ≤7.0% or 53 mmol/mol (%) 47 (25.5) 16 (27.6) 17 (39.5) 14 (16.9) 0.0199 0.2055 0.1259 0.0051
 Weight (kg) (mean, SD) 94.1 (23.2) 93.0 (22.3) 88.9 (18.9) 97.6 (25.3) 0.1122 0.3252 0.2608 0.0448
 BMI (mean, SD) 33.8 (7.7) 33.8 (7.8) 32.5(6.3) 34.5 (8.2) 0.3738    
 SBP (mean, SD) 140.9 (20.0) 141.2 (23.2) 138.7 (19.3) 141.8 (18.0) 0.6879    
 DBP (mean, SD) 75.1 (10.0) 75.5 (11.1) 75.4 (9.4) 74.6 (9.5) 0.8267    
 Total Cholesterol (mean, SD) 4.99 (1.41) 4.96 (1.44) 4.98 (1.1) 5.02 (1.55) 0.9694    
 HDL-C (mean, SD) 1.19 (0.33) 1.22 (0.32) 1.21 (0.33) 1.15 (0.33) 0.5015    
 LDL-C (mean, SD) 2.65 (1.01) 2.64 (1.04) 2.85 (1.03) 2.53 (0.97) 0.3139    
 Triglycerides (median, IQR) 2.06 (1.5–2.92) 1.92 (1.39–2.99) 2.12 (1.58–2.59) 2.18 (1.5–2.99) 0.8033    
 TC:HDL-C (mean, SD) 4.33 (1.41) 4.19 (1.27) 4.35 (1.27) 4.43 (1.59) 0.6311    
 Smoker (%) 37 (20.1%) 8 (13.8) 7 (16.3) 22 (26.5) 0.1390 0.7283 0.0695 0.1960
First visit medications         
 On Insulin (%) 47 (24.4%) 23 (39.0) 3 (6.5) 21 (23.9) 0.0006 0.0001 0.0498 0.0129
 On ACE-I/ARB (%) 114 (59.7) 44 (74.6) 25 (54.4) 45 (52.3) 0.0191 0.0303 0.0069 0.8245
 On ASA (%) 76 (39.8) 26 (44.1) 16 (35.6) 34 (39.1) 0.6684    
 On Statin (%) 98 (50.8) 34 (57.6) 23 (50.0) 41 (46.6) 0.4198    
  1. Note: p-values significant at 5%, with Bonferroni adjustment for pairwise comparisons, are printed in bold type. R Retained, D/C Discharged, DF Defaulted, CAD Coronary artery disease, PVD Peripheral vascular disease, CVA Cerebral vascular accident, TIA Transient ischemic attack, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, kg kilograms, BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TC:HDL-C Total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, ACE-I Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker (antagonist), ASA Acetylsalicylic acid, MD Medical doctor, RN Registered nurse, RD Registered dietitian, SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range.