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Table 2 Probability of using medical services – results of logistic regression models – adjusted for age, sex, school education, alcohol consumption and physical activity

From: The association of smoking status with healthcare utilisation, productivity loss and resulting costs: results from the population-based KORA F4 study

Parameter Physician visit Hospital treatment Rehabilitation Physical therapya Alternative physician Pharmaceuticals Work absenceb Disability benefitsc
   Odds ratio Odds ratio Odds ratio Odds ratio Odds ratio Odds ratio Odds ratio Odds ratio
   [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI]
Smoking status Current smoker 0.69 *** [0.55–0.87] 0.99 [0.73–1.33] 0.85 [0.48–1.49] 0.75 ** [0.58–0.97] 0.66 * [0.41–1.07] 1.20 [0.94–1.54] 0.75 ** [0.56–0.99] 1.41 [0.73–2.71]
  Occasional smoker 0.68 [0.42–1.09] 0.88 [0.46–1.71] 0.90 [0.27–2.96] 0.76 [0.44–1.31] 0.60 [0.21–1.68] 1.22 [0.73–2.05] 1.03 [0.57–1.85] 2.25 [0.64–7.87]
  Former smoker 1.12 [0.94–1.34] 1.24 ** [1.01–1.52] 1.47 ** [1.04–2.09] 1.00 [0.83–1.19] 1.21 [0.89–1.64] 1.39 *** [1.14–1.68] 1.19 [0.94–1.52] 1.56 * [0.92–2.65]
  Never smoker 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. n=3068 due to missing information on school education in three subjects.
  2. *** significant at the 1% level/** significant at the 5% level/* trend with p≤0.10.
  3. an=3,067: four observations with missing information on physical therapy.
  4. bn=1,499: work absence only for persons with information on occupational status and age ≤65.
  5. cn=2,176: 22 observations with missing information on disability benefits.