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Table 3 Factor loadings of the empowerment items (n = 197)

From: Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure

Empowerment factor label and item (tested empirical dimension) Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
  Positive attitude and sense of control    
  I feel useful in my daily life despite my condition (I) .814   
  I feel I have a very good life despite my health problems (I) .802   
  I feel like I am actively involved in life despite my health problems (I) .790   
  I can live a normal life despite my condition (I) .785   
  I am still doing interesting things in my life despite my health problems (I) .744   
  I have plans to do enjoyable things despite my health condition (I) .739   
  *My health problems stop me from enjoying my life (I) .703   
  I have a positive outlook towards my condition (I) .701   
  I find my health problems take over my life (I) .673   
  I feel a sense of control over my condition (PC) .672   
  I have a hopeful outlook towards my condition (I) .668   
  I am capable of handling my condition (PC) .661   
  I can minimise the impact of my symptoms on my life (PC) .655   
  I feel there is purpose and meaning in my life despite my health problems (I) .623   
  *I live my life one day at a time because of my condition (PC) .581   
  I actively manage my condition (PC) .553   
  I am satisfied with my control over the symptoms of my condition (PC) .553   
  Knowing more about my condition helps me to manage it (KU) .521   
  I have the skills that help me feel in control of my condition (PC) .518   
  I try to make the most of my life despite my condition (I) .493   
  Without my health problems I could achieve more (I) .489   
  Knowledge and confidence in decision making    
  I know enough about my condition (KU)   .747  
  I have all the knowledge I need to manage my condition (KU)   .704  
  I understand my condition (KU)   .657  
  I would feel able to refuse a decision made by my doctor concerning my treatment (DM)   .590  
  I know how to handle difficulties related to my condition (PC)   .582  
  *I find it difficult to ask my doctor to change my treatment (DM)   .543  
  I have information to handle difficulties related to my condition (KU) .425 .517  
  I know how to control my health problems (PC) .448 .494  
  I participate in decisions concerning my health care (DM)   .493  
  I am confident choosing among different treatment options related to my condition with my doctor (DM)   .490 .430
  I know what my test results mean (KU)   .442  
  I know where to go to find something out about my condition (KU)   .426  
  I can talk to my doctor if I change my mind concerning my treatment (DM)   .407  
  Enabling others    
  I need to know what is happening to me and why (KU)    .686
  I have helped people who have similar conditions find different ways to cope (EO)    .627
  I have shared my experience of managing my condition with other people with health problems (EO)    .627
  I feel frustrated for other people who are struggling with similar conditions (EO)    .611
  I have shared with others how I keep myself well (EO)    .585
  I would acquire more health information when needed (KU)    .558
  I am aware I can change my mind about a treatment (DM)    .541
  I am aware I can choose different treatment options (DM)   .406 .506
  *I’m not bothered about understanding health information (KU)    .498
  I often request additional health information from my doctor (DM)    487
  I would refuse a treatment if I thought it was not the best thing for me (DM)    .458
  I have shared my understanding of my condition with people who have similar conditions (EO)    .423
  People who are struggling with similar conditions often ask me for advice (EO)    .421
  1. Note: Component extraction method was Principal Axis Factoring, with a cut-point for including factor loadings (>0.4); *Negative worded item; Tested empirical dimensions; (I), Identity; (PC), Personal control; (KU), Knowledge and understanding; Four of 51 items failed to load any factor, ‘I am satisfied with the level of health information that I have available to me’ (KU); ‘My own experience has increased my understanding of what it is like for other people to have this condition’ (EO); ‘I accept that I have to live with my condition’ (I); ‘I sometimes take health information to my doctor’ (DM).