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Table 7 Six binomial logistic regression models for dependent variable: cost

From: Inequities in access to healthcare: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries

Country 1. AU 2. HK 3. JP 4. KR 5. TW 6. TL
(Models for DV4)
Model fit χ2 (df) 106.91 (20)*** 121.19(13)*** 99.37(13)*** 102.49(15)*** 76.75(9)*** 29.28(8)***
N response/N total 912/1044 (87.4%) 665/674 (98.8%) 990/1000 (99%) 961/1006 (95.5%) 1081/1200 (90.1%) 1185/1200 (98.8%)
Nagelkerke R2 0.16 0.23 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.04
Independent variable Waldχ 2 (df) p* OR Waldχ 2 (df) p* OR Waldχ 2 (df) p* Waldχ 2 df) p* Waldχ2 (df) p* Waldχ2 (df) p*
(95%CI) (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient
Sex -  
Male (ref) 1.00 1.00
0 0
Female 12.82χ2(1)*** 4.58χ2(1)*
0.54 (0.38–0.76) 0.72 (0.54–0.97)
−0.62 −0.33
Age (20–29 ref) 15.90χ2(5)**
< 20 (ref) 1.00
0
20–29 16.72χ2(4)**
1.00
0
30–39
40–49
50–59
60+ 8.08χ2(1)**
1.89 (1.22–2.94)
0.64
Marital status 15.51(5)** 32.12(4)*** 13.09χ2(4)**
Never married (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00
0 0 0
Married 9.18(1)** 8.08χ2(1)**
0.48 (0.30–0.77) 0.58 (0.40–0.85)
−0.73 −0.54
Divorced
Widowed 20.12(1)*** 7.02χ2(1)**
19.81 (5.37– 0.38 (0.19–0.78)
73.05) −0.96
2.97
Separated
Cohabiting 9.23χ2(1)**
0.38 (0.20–0.71)
−0.98
Household monthly 9.72χ2(3)*
adjusted income quartile 1.00
4th: quartile (ref) 0
1st quartile
2nd quartile 8.11χ2(1)**
0.52 (0.33–0.81)
−0.66
3rd quartile
Work status 21.17χ2(6)** 58.00χ2(5)*** 21.23χ2(6)**
Full-time 1.00 1.00 1.00
(ref) 0 0 0
Part-time 18.30χ2(1)***
0.31 (0.18–0.53)
−1.18
Self-employed 0.00χ2(1)
- (not given)
20.39***
Working for the family
Retired/pensioner 15.92χ2(1)*** 49–38χ2(1)***
3.32 (1.84–5.99) 0.12 (0.06–0.21)
1.20 −2.15
Housewife/househusband 3.90χ2(1)*
2.03 (1.01–4.08)
0.71
Student/
Unemployed/
Other
Subjective health 6.28χ2(2)* Dissatisfied (ref) Dissatisfied
satisfaction 1.00 10.65χ2(2)** (ref)
Unhappy 0 1.00 19.55χ2(2)***
0 1.00
0
Fair Average
5.95χ2(1)*
2.41 (1.20–5.27)
0.92
Happy 5.99χ2(1)* Satisfied Satisfied
2.01 (1.15–3.50) 10.32χ2(1)** 16.00χ2(1)***
−0.70 3.24(1.58–6.62) 2.68 (1.65–4.33)
1.17   0.98
Financial situation in last 18.19χ2(3)*** 18.44χ2(3)*** 12.54χ2(3)** 41.39χ(3)*** 13.40χ2(3)**
year 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Save money (ref) 0 0 0 0 0
Just get by 2.01χ2(1)* 24.47χ2(1)*** 9.98χ2(10**)
0.67 (0.45–0.99) 0.32 (0.21–0.51) 0.55 (0.38–0.80)
−0.40 −1.13 −0.61
Spent some savings 11.76χ2(1)** 22.44χ2(1)*** 7.46χ2(1)**
0.53 (0.37–0.76) 0.25 (0.14–0.44) 0.45 (0.25–0.80)
−0.64 −1.41 −0.80
Spent savings & borrowed 17.73χ2(1)*** 12.50χ2(1)*** 12.13χ2(1)*** 33.38χ2(1)*** 9.22χ2(1)**
money 0.31 (0.18–0.4) 0.38 (0.23–0.65) 0.32 (0.17–0.61) 0.16 (0.09–0.30) 0.48 (0.30–0.77)
−1.17 −0.96 −1.13 −1.83
Self-rated health 41.14χ2(4)***
Very good (ref) 1.00
0
Good
Fair 8.04χ2(1)**
0.48 (0.29–0.80)
−0.74
Bad 14.63χ2(1)***
0.27 (0.14–0.53)
−1.31
Very bad    2.44χ2(1)    
0.37 (0.11–1.29)
−1.00
Whether respondent has 1.00
chronic health condition 0
Yes (ref)
No χ2(1)=6.70*
     2.51 (1.25-5.04)   
  1. Ref: reference level, * p<.05; ** p<.01, *** p<.001.
  2. * Levels too low in one item (widowed f=3; separated f=1).
  3. ** Levels too low in one item (separated f=4).
  4. *** Levels too low in one item (self-employed f=7).