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Table 2 Positive response rate of each item and Cronbach’s α for dimensions

From: Hospital survey on patient safety culture in China

Dimension/items(internal consistency reliability coefficient) US China
1.Teamwork Within Units (Cranach’s α = 0.72) 80% 84%
A1. People support one another in this facility 86% 87%
A3. When a lot of work needs to be done quickly, we work together as a team to get the work done 86% 87%
A4. In facility, people treat each other with respect 78% 80%
A11. When one area in this unit gets really busy, others help out 69% 81%
2.Supervisor/Manager Expectations & Actions Promoting Patient Safety (Cranach’s α = 0.51) 75% 63%
B2. Manager says a good word when he/she sees a job done according to established 76% 76%
B3. Whenever pressure builds up, my supervisor/manager wants us to work faster, even if it means taking shortcuts 74% 36%
B4. My supervisor/manager overlooks patient safety problems that happen over and over 76% 78%
3.Organizational Learning—Continuous Improvement (Cranach’s α = 0.74) 72% 88%
A6. We are actively doing things to improve patient safety. 84% 87%
A13. After we make changes to improve patient safety, we evaluate their effectiveness. 69% 89%
4.Management Support for Patient Safety (Cranach’s α = 0.67) 72% 69%
F1. Hospital management provides a work climate that promotes patient safety. 81% 71%
F8. The actions of hospital management show that patient safety is a top priority. 75% 70%
F9. Hospital management seems interested in patient safety only after an adverse event happens 61% 65%
5.Overall Perceptions of Patient Safety (Cranach’s α = 0.64) 66% 55%
A10. It is just by chance that more serious mistakes don't happen around here. 62% 61%
A17. We had patient safety problems in this unit. 64% 37%
A18. Our procedures and systems are good at preventing errors from happening. 72% 65%
6.Feedback & Communication About Error (Cranach’s α = 0.64) 64% 50%
C1. We are given feedback about changes put into place based on event reports. 56% 54%
C3. We are informed about errors that happen in this unit. 65% 64%
C5. In this unit, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again. 72% 53%
7 Communication Openness (Cranach’s α = -0.47) 62% 65%
C2. Staff will freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect patient care. 75% 51%
C4. Staffs are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right. 47% 80%
C6. Staffs feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority. 63% 64%
8.Nonpunitive Response to Errors (Cranach’s α = 0.75) 44% 60%
A8. Staff feel like their mistakes are held against them. 50% 53%
A12. When an event is reported, it feels like the person is being written up, not the problem. 46% 67%
A16. Staff worry that mistakes they make are kept in their personnel file. 35% 60%
9 Teamwork Across Units (Cranach’s α = -0.63) 58% 66%
F4. There is good cooperation among hospital units that need to work together. 60% 66%
10. Staffing (Cranach’s α = 0.63) 56% 45%
A2. We have enough staff to handle the workload. 56% 42%
A5. Staffs in this unit work longer hours than is best for patient care. 51% 38%
A7. We use more agency/temporary staff than is best for patient care. 44% 37%
A14. We work in “crisis mode” trying to do too much, too quickly. 45% 61%