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Table 2 Binary logistic regression on health insurance ownership among women in Ghana

From: Effects of spatial location and household wealth on health insurance subscription among women in Ghana

Explanatory variables Model 1 95% CI Model 2 95% CI
Zones/Belts     
Coastal 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1]
Central 1.761 [0.922-3.362] 1.355 [0.633-2.899]
Northern 2.318** [1.328-4.045] 2.593** [1.394-4.823]
Wealth status     
Poorest 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1]
Poorer 1.313 [0.802-2.150] 0.852 [0.490-1.483]
Middle 1.312 [0.767-2.244] 0.762 [0.416-1.395]
Richer 1.946* [1.140-3.321] 1.215 [0.667-2.215]
Richest 3.029*** [1.787-5.136] 1.572 [0.858-2.880]
Interactions – location & wealth status     
Coastal with wealth (overall reference) 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1]
Central interaction with wealth     
Central # Poorest 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1]
Central # Poorer 1.240 [0.608-2.531] 1.697 [0.728-3.956]
Central # Middle 1.775 [0.857-3.674] 2.491* [1.032-6.010]
Central # Richer 1.732 [0.833-3.602] 2.157 [0.890-5.228]
Central # Least poor 1.495 [0.702-3.185] 2.076 [0.812-5.307]
Northern interaction with wealth     
Northern # Poorest 1 [1,1] 1 [1,1]
Northern # Poorer 1.209 [0.640-2.283] 1.980 [0.894-4.383]
Northern # Middle 2.574** [1.261-5.255] 4.597*** [1.906-11.09]
Northern # Richer 4.042*** [1.807-9.042] 8.475** [2.174-33.03]
Northern # Richest 2.319 [0.970-5.545] 6.315** [1.692-23.57]
Respondent’s education     
No formal education    1 [1,1]
Primary    0.897 [0.656-1.227]
Secondary    1.387* [1.035-1.859]
Higher    1.255 [0.695-2.264]
Religion     
Catholic    1.332 [0.871-2.039]
Protestant    1.440 [0.968-2.141]
Pentecostal    1.326 [0.925-1.901]
Moslem    1 [1,1]
Traditional/No religion    0.737 [0.471-1.152]
Age cohort     
15-19    1 [1,1]
20-24    2.146 [0.851-5.411]
25-29    2.160 [0.862-5.414]
30-34    2.368 [0.934-6.004]
35-39    2.708* [1.108-6.616]
40-44    2.942* [1.182-7.325]
45-59    2.276 [0.889-5.827]
Health decision making     
Alone    1 [1,1]
Respondent & partner    1.111 [0.864-1.430]
Partner alone/Someone    1.023 [0.780-1.342]
Small household purchases     
Alone    1 [1,1]
Respondent & partner    1.093 [0.801-1.491]
Partner alone/Someone    1.153 [0.861-1.544]
Large household purchase     
Alone    1 [1,1]
Respondent & partner    0.953 [0.747-1.215]
Partner alone/Someone    1.067 [0.809-1.408]
Variations in couples’ earnings     
More than partner    1 [1,1]
Less than partner    1.010 [0.725-1.407]
About the same    1.062 [0.699-1.615]
Others    1.152 [0.684-1.943]
Partner’s education     
No education    1 [1,1]
Primary    1.108 [0.742-1.654]
Secondary    1.602** [1.174-2.188]
Higher    2.458*** [1.542-3.919]
Cons 0.232*** [0.144-0.373] 0.0709*** [0.0232-0.217]
AIC 6226.5   2857.7  
N 4910   2288  
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets.
  2. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001.