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Table 1 Patient characteristics (n = 871)

From: The use of risk sharing tools for post adoption surveillance of a non pharmacological technology in routine practice: results after one year

Variables N Value
Gender (male) * 871 270 (31.0
Age (years) ¥ 871 56 (45; 67
Reason for referral to NRT * 871  
Neck Pain (NP)   235 (26.9)
Thoracic pain (TP)   60 (6.9)
Low Back Pain (LBP)   576 (66.2)
Employment status *   
Passive (students, housewife, etc.) 535 320 (59.8)
Receiving financial compensation for LBP, TP or NP   34 (6.3)
Working   215 (40.2)
Duration of pain, since first diagnosis (days) ¥ 763 2,555 (730; 4,380)
Duration of pain since first diagnosis, categorised * 763  
≤ 1 year   136 (17.8)
1-5 years   219 (28.7)
5-10 years   204 (26.7)
>10 years   204 (26.7)
Duration of current pain episode (days) ¥ 809 180 (60; 365)
Duration of current pain episode (days), categorised * 809  
Subacute (≤ 90 days)   309 (38.2)
Chronic (>90 days)   500 (61.7)
Pregnancy *   2 (0.3)
Other comorbidities * 601 677 (84.4)
Involved in work-related claims * 802 14 (3.3)
Involved in litigation * 427 8 (1.9)
Baseline severity of local pain (NP, TP or LBP) (VAS score) ¥ 426 7.0 (6.0: 9.0)
870 660 (75.8)
Reporting referred pain at baseline* 871 6.0 (2.0; 8.0)
Baseline severity of referred pain (VAS score) ¥♦ 660 13 (9.0; 17.0)
Baseline lumbar disability (RMQ score) ¥♦ 574 40 (30.0; 50.0)
Baseline neck disability (NDI score) ¥♦ 229  
Diagnostic procedures undergone during the current pain episode, before being referred for NRT*   69 (7.9)
X-Ray 871 98 (11.2)
MRI 871 21 (2.4)
Other¤ 871  
Imaging findings *   698 (80.1)
Disc degeneration 871 137 (15.7)
Facet joint degeneration 871 68 (7.8)
Scoliosis 871 3 (0.3)
Difference in leg length 871 14 (1.6)
Spondylolisis 871 50 (5.7)
Spondylolisthesis 871 87 (9.9)
Spinal stenosis 871 229 (26.3)
Disc protrusion 871 340 (39.0)
Disc herniation (extrusion) 871 419 (48.1)
Other findings 871 30 (3.4)
No findings 871  
Ongoing treatments when referred for NRT   751 (86.2)
Drugs* 871 721 (82.8)
Analgesics   712 (81.7)
Non-opioid   0 (0.0)
Codeine   78 (9.0)
Other opioids   568 (65.2)
NSAIDs   25 (2.8)
Steroids   132 (15.1)
Muscle relaxants   164 (18.8)
Otherɣ   
Non pharmacological treatments* 871 42 (4.9)
Physical therapy/Rehabilitation   7 (0.8)
Had undergone surgery for the current episode, before being referred for NRT*   
  1. NP: Neck Pain TP: Thoracic pain LBP: Low back pain.
  2. VAS: Visual Analogue Scale (range from better to worse; 0–10).
  3. RMQ: Roland-Morris Questionnaire (range from better to worse: 0–24).
  4. NDI: Neck Disability Index (range from better to worse: 0–100).
  5. NRT: Neuro-reflexotherapy intervention.
  6. *Frequency (%); ¥ Median (P25; P75);
  7. ¤Other diagnostic procedures: EMG, CT scan, scintigraphy.
  8. ∞Other imaging findings: annular tear, loss of cervical lordosis, loss of thoracic cifosis, loss of lumbar lordosis, horizontalization of the sacrum, lumbarization of S1, sacralization of L5.
  9. In patients in whom the variables “referred pain”, “RMQ” and “NDI” were applicable (660 patients who reported having referred pain, 235 who were referred for neck pain and 576 who were referred for low back pain, respectively).
  10. ɣ Other drugs: anti-epileptics or antidepressants prescribed for treating pain.