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Table 2 Characteristics of participating optometrists by formal education

From: Sensitivity and specificity of Norwegian optometrists’ evaluation of diabetic retinopathy in single-field retinal images – a cross-sectional experimental study

   Master of science in clinical optometrya
  All (n=74) No (n=51) Yes (n=22)
Gender, n (%)    
 Female 43 (58) 30 (59) 13 (59)
 Male 31 (42) 21 (41) 9 (41)
Number of years as practicing optometrist, mean (sd) ** 12 (±9) 10 (±8) 16 (±8)
Preferred method of retinal examination, n (%)    
 Undilated indirect ophthalmoscopy 35 (47) 22 (43) 13 (59)
 Retinal fundus photography 25 (34) 16 (31) 8 (36)
 Undilated direct ophthalmoscopy 9 (12) 9 (17) 0 (0)
 Other 5 (7) 4 (8) 1 (1)
Retinal examinations methods used in patients with diabetes, n (%)    
 Undilated retinal photography 46 (62) 30 (59) 15 (68)
 Undilated indirect ophthalmoscopy* 39 (53) 23 (45) 16 (73)
 Dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy 15 (20) 9 (18) 6 (27)
 Dilated retinal photography 11 (15) 8 (16) 3 (14)
 Undilated direct ophthalmoscopy* 11 (15) 11 (22) 0 (0)
Available instruments for retinal examination and imaging, n (%)    
 Direct ophthalmoscope and/or indirect slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy 71 (96) 48 (94) 22 (100)
 Retinal fundus camera 65 (88) 44 (86) 20 (91)
 Scanning-laser ophthalmoscope (Optomap) 19 (26) 10 (20) 9 (41)
  1. a Missing data for 1 participant.
  2. Student t-test P*<0.05 and P**<0.01 between optometrists with and without MSc in clinical optometry.