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Table 1 Bivariate analyses for baseline characteristics (year 2009)

From: Resource utilization, costs and treatment patterns of switching and discontinuing treatment of MS patients with high relapse activity

Variable Non-HRA cohorta(n=18,202) HRA cohortb(n=1,017) Pvaluec
Age Group, mean (SD) 51.6 (11.1) 49.5 (10.6) <0.0001
Age Group, n (%)    <0.0001
  18-35 1,503 (8.3) 107 (10.5)  
  36-45 3,671 (20.2) 242 (23.8)  
  46-55 6,139 (33.7) 348 (34.2)  
  56-65 5,331 (29.3) 274 (26.9)  
  65+ 1,558 (8.6) 46 (4.5)  
Gender, n (%) 0.8502
  Male 4,163 (22.9) 230 (22.6)  
  Female 14,039 (77.1) 787 (77.4)  
Geographic Region, n (%)    <0.0001
  North East 2,294 (12.6) 143 (14.1)  
  North Central 5,926 (32.6) 278 (27.3)  
  South 6,137 (33.7) 411 (40.4)  
  West 3,830 (21.0) 184 (18.1)  
  Unknown 15 (0.1) 1 (0.1)  
Employment Status, n (%)    <0.0001
  Employees 10,279 (56.5) 510 (50.2)  
  Spouse/Child/Other 7,923 (43.5) 507 (49.9)  
Insurance Type, n (%)    0.8176
  Fee for Service (FFS) 14,800 (81.3) 835 (82.1)  
  Non-FFS 2,976 (16.4) 159 (15.6)  
  Missing 426 (2.3) 23 (2.3)  
CCI, mean (SD) 0.6 (1.1) 0.8 (1.3) <0.0001
Any MS Symptoms, n (%) d    <0.0001
  Yes 12,513 (68.8) 835 (82.1)  
  No 5,689 (31.3) 182 (17.9)  
Any DMT Use, n (%)    <0.0001
  Yes 12,408 (68.2) 769 (75.6)  
  No 5,794 (31.8) 248 (24.4)  
All-cause ER Visits    <0.0001
  Yes 4,116 (22.6) 386 (38.0)  
  No 14,086 (77.4) 631 (62.1)  
All-cause Hospitalizations    <0.0001
  Yes 2,127 (11.7) 238 (23.4)  
  No 16,075 (88.3) 779 (76.6)  
  1. MS=multiple sclerosis; SD=standard deviation; FFS=fee for service; CCI=Charlson Comorbidity Index; DMT=disease modifying therapy; ER=emergency room.
  2. aNon-HRA cohort: MS relapse equal to 0 or 1 in year 2009.
  3. bHRA cohort: MS relapse ≥2 in year 2009.
  4. c P values of overall comparison: Chi-square for categorical variables; t-test for continuous variables.
  5. dIncluding the following list from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society: fatigue, numbness, walking (gait), balance, & coordination problems, bladder dysfunction, bowel dysfunction, visual symptoms, sexual dysfunction, dizziness and vertigo, pain, muscle weakness/spasm/spasticity, cognitive function, depression and other emotional changes, speech disorders, swallowing problems, headache, hearing loss, seizures, tremors, respiration/breathing problems, and itching.