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Table 3 Results of DID estimations of antihypertensive drug costs

From: Economic impact of switching to fixed-dose combination therapy for Japanese hypertensive patients: a retrospective cost analysis

  Estimate Standard error t p
Total patients n = 10,206 -10420 672 -15.51 <.0001
ARB and CCB combination before index n = 5674 -12800 836 -15.32 <.0001
ARB alone before index n = 4042 2376 1252 1.90 0.0577
Prescribed by doctors at clinics n = 1104 -8815 1411 -6.25 <.0001
Prescribed by cardiovascular specialists n = 2629 -11081 1302 -8.51 <.0001
  1. Difference-in-differences (DID) estimates were obtained by adjusting for gender, age category, number of drugs (≥7), diabetes drug users, and hyperlipidemia drug users. Antihypertensive drug costs were calculated by sum of reimbursement costs for angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (CCB), thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, alpha and beta-blockers, and fixed-dose combination drugs.