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Table 3 Unadjusted and Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for determinants of public health insurance status

From: Determinants for participation in a public health insurance program among residents of urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

Variables Public Health Insurance Status
  Unadjusted OR (UOR) 95% CI Adjusted OR (AOR) 95% CI
Employment sector ( Ref = Informal employment)     
   Formal employment 29.47*** [25.00-34.75] 4.11*** [1.57-3.58]
Participates in National Social Security Fund (NSSF) (Ref = No) 446.29*** [364.51-546.42] 222.63*** [152.34-325.35]
Participates in savings and credit cooperative organizations (SACCOs) (Ref = No) 101.58*** [75.84-136.06] 14.48*** [7.48-28.03]
Participates in community-based savings groups (Ref = No) 2.74*** [2.44-3.07] 1.62** [1.15-2.28]
Income in the last one month a (Ref = Non-poor)     
   Poor 0.07*** [0.05-0.09] 0.34*** [0.20-0.57]
Gender (Ref = Male)     
   Female 0.23*** [0.20-0.26] 2.37*** [1.57-3.58]
Marital status (Ref = Currently in Union)     
   Formerly in union 0.25*** [0.18-0.34] 0.46* [0.23-0.94]
   Never in union 0.18*** [0.15-0.21] 0.57* [0.36-0.90]
Age of respondents (Ref = Less Than 24 Years)     
   24-29 years 5.31*** [3.82-7.40] 0.83 [0.24-2.82]
   30-39 years 15.65*** [11.53-21.24] 0.76 [0.22-2.56]
   40-49 years 22.06** [16.15-30.14] 1.02 [0.29-3.54]
   50+ years 16.24*** [11.90-22.16] 0.75 [0.21-2.63]
Education (Ref = Never Attended School)     
   Primary 2.71*** [1.90-3.86] 2.07 [0.88-4.86]
   Secondary/higher 8.32*** [5.84-11.86] 2.12 [0.89-5.04]
Slum residence (Ref = Viwandani)     
   Korogocho 0.12*** [0.10-0.14] 0.84 [0.56-1.27]
Ethnicity (Ref = Other)     
   Kikuyu 1.92*** [1.62-2.28] 0.87 [0.55-1.38]
   Luhya 0.94 [0.77-1.15] 1.67 [0.96-2.90]
   Luo 3.62*** [3.17-4.15] 1.11 [0.77-1.62]
   Kamba 1.79*** [1.51-2.13] 1.09 [0.68-1.76]
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. aCases with don't know/missing responses (n = 667) were excluded from analysis; UOR: analysis did not account for key confounding factors; AOR: adjustment for key confounders was done in the analysis
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