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Table 3 Distribution of household income and health care payments by income quintiles, concentration index (CI), and Kakwani index

From: New evidence on financing equity in China's health care reform - A case study on Gansu province, China

Year Area Income quintiles Household income General taxes Public health insurancea Private health insurance OOP Overall
2002 Urban (A) Q1 Poorest 5.51% 5.58% 1.94% 1.39% 4.92%  
   Q2 9.78% 9.90% 4.70% 3.37% 8.19%  
   Q3 14.74% 14.77% 14.42% 15.14% 13.71%  
   Q4 21.74% 21.64% 30.87% 27.06% 20.62%  
   Q5 Richest 48.23% 48.11% 48.08% 53.04% 52.56%  
   Gini/CI (SE) 0.4256* (0.0112) 0.4232* (0.0113) 0.4998* (0.0263) 0.5110 (0.0597) 0.4711* (0.0317)  
   Kakwani - −0.0024** (0.0005) 0.0742* (0.0297) 0.0854 (0.0613) 0.0455* (0.0286) 0.0431
   (SE)       
   Weight   0.1722 0.1716 0.0229 0.6333 1
   Dominance test   D+ X D- None  
  Rural (B) Q1 Poorest 5.59% 5.85% 10.40% 8.34% 5.51%  
   Q2 10.25% 10.97% 7.62% 2.43% 9.07%  
   Q3 14.29% 15.39% 10.69% 5.74% 11.17%  
   Q4 18.39% 18.90% 23.98% 21.62% 18.67%  
   Q5 Richest 51.48% 48.88% 47.31% 61.87% 55.57%  
   Gini/CI (SE) 0.4541* (0.0446) 0.4260* (0.0420) 0.3926 (0.1322) 0.5350 (0.0985) 0.4989* (0.0495)  
   Kakwani - −0.0281** (0.0060) −0.0615 (0.1397) 0.0810 (0.1085) 0.0448* (0.0295) 0.0148
   (SE)       
   Weight   0.1722 0.1716 0.0229 0.6333 1
   Dominance test   D+ None None None  
2007 Urban (C) Q1 Poorest 7.42% 8.11% 3.84% 5.68% 5.90%  
   Q2 12.14% 12.40% 10.34% 7.18% 11.51%  
   Q3 16.98% 17.14% 17.49% 22.57% 16.24%  
   Q4 23.69% 23.75% 25.53% 33.79% 23.05%  
   Q5 Richest 39.77% 38.60% 42.79% 30.78% 43.30%  
   Gini/CI (SE) 0.3256** (0.0044) 0.3078** (0.0044) 0.3917* (0.0105) 0.3345 (0.0598) 0.3743* (0.0270)  
   Kakwani - −0.0177** (0.0039) 0.0661* (0.0107) 0.0089 (0.0598) 0.0488* (0.0249) 0.0351
   (SE)       
   Weight   0.2453 0.2339 0.0365 0.4843 1
   Dominance test   D+ D- None None  
  Rural (D) Q1 Poorest 7.40% 7.68% 13.37% 1.08% 6.76%  
   Q2 12.17% 12.54% 14.89% 4.68% 10.87%  
   Q3 16.29% 16.32% 17.40% 10.02% 17.31%  
   Q4 22.50% 22.33% 22.63% 25.14% 24.57%  
   Q5 Richest 41.64% 41.13% 31.71% 59.08% 40.49%  
   Gini/CI (SE) 0.3402** (0.0066) 0.3305** (0.0069) 0.1966* (0.0394) 0.5936 (0.0673) 0.3488* (0.0234)  
   Kakwani - −0.0097** (0.0036) −0.1436* (0.0394) 0.2534 (0.0672) 0.0086* (0.0223) −0.0226
   (SE)       
   Weight   0.2453 0.2339 0.0365 0.4843 1
   Dominance test   D+ D+ D- None  
Inequality difference Δ(urban–rural) 2002 (A-B) - 0.0257 0.1357 0.0045 0.0007 0.0283
   Dominance test   None None None None  
   2007 (C-D) - −0.0080 0.2097 −0.2445 0.0402 0.0576
   Dominance test   None D- None None  
  Δ(2007–2002) Urban (C-A) - −0.0153 −0.0081 −0.0765 0.0033 −0.0080
   Dominance test   D+ D+ None D+  
   Rural (D-B) - 0.0184 −0.0821 0.1724 −0.0362 −0.0374
   Dominance test   D+ D+ None None  
  1. * Significant at 0.05.
  2. ** Significant at 0.01.
  3. a Public health insurance in urban areas refers exclusively to BMI, and refers solely to NCMS in rural areas.
  4. X indicates rejection of the null hypothesis that curves are indistinguishable in favor of curves crossing at the 5 percent significance level.
  5. None indicates failure to reject the null hypothesis that curves are indistinguishable at the 5 percent significance level.
  6. +/− indicates concentration curve dominates (is dominated by) the Lorenz curve or concentration curve in one year or area and dominates (is dominated by) the other in another year or area.