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Table 6 Concentration index for coverage of MNCH interventions in Vietnam, 1997–2006

From: Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: a retrospective study of survey data for 1997–2006

Intervention Wealth score     Maternal education    
  1997 2000 2002 2006 1997 2000 2002 2006
1. Family planning         
% of women using any type of family planning method 0.0384 0.0432 0.0249 −0.0054 0.0335 0.0487 0.0315 0.0123
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
% of women using modern type of family planning method 0.022 0.0074 −0.0066 −0.0348 0.0209 0.0437 0.0075 −0.0004
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
2. Maternal and newborn health         
% of pregnant women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel 0.2833 0.1652 0.0776 0.0587 0.0765 0.1428 0.0523 0.0463
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
% of pregnant women attended at least 4 times during pregnancy by skilled health personnel 0.4296 N/a 0.3170 N/a 0.2101 N/a 0.1741 N/a
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 N/a
p (CI1997 = CI2006) N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a
% of women who received at least two tetanus toxoid doses during last pregnancy 0.1373 0.1119 0.0952 0.0745 0.0690 0.1238 0.0536 0.0487
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
% of births delivered in health facilities 0.1964 N/a 0.1324 0.1182 0.0561 N/a 0.0721 0.0669
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of deliveries attended by skilled health personnel 0.1407 0.1760 0.1247 0.1025 0.0570 0.1490 0.0771 0.0612
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of children born in the last 12 months who were breastfed within one hour of birth 0.0218 N/a −0.0075 −0.0244 0.0383 N/a 0.0286 0.0227
p (CI = 0) p > 0.05 N/a p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of infants under 6 months exclusively breastfed −0.0599 N/a −0.1062 −0.1472 0.0345 N/a 0.0460 −0.1151
p (CI = 0) p > 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 N/a p > 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of infants aged 6–9 months who are breastfed and receive complementary food −0.0160 −0.0352 −0.0377 −0.0063 0.0194 −0.0271 −0.0663 −0.0503
p (CI = 0) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
3. Child health         
% of children aged 0–59 months who are immunized against measles 0.0698 0.0775 0.0718 0.0341 0.0575 0.0778 0.0394 0.0211
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
% of children aged 0–59 months who received BCG vaccine 0.0513 0.0685 0.0432 0.0164 0.0184 0.0580 0.0244 0.0121
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of children aged 0–59 months who received 3 doses of DPT vaccine 0.0844 0.1334 0.1051 0.0641 0.0587 0.1164 0.0602 0.0539
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of children aged 0–59 months receiving one dose of Vitamin A in the past 6 months N/a 0.0765 N/a 0.0436 N/a 0.0559 N/a 0.0393
p (CI = 0) N/a p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05 N/a p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a
% of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhea in the last 2 weeks who were brought to an appropriate health provider 0.0119 0.0796 0.0884 0.0101 −0.0612 0.0749 0.0736 0.0685
p (CI = 0) p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhea in the last 2 weeks who received ORT and continued feeding 0.1887 0.0059 0.1088 −0.0526 −0.0042 0.0425 −0.0215 −0.0193
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of children aged 0–59 months with suspected ARI in the last 2 weeks who were brought to an appropriate health provider 0.0619 0.0755 0.0161 0.0579 0.0393 0.0931 0.0532 0.0780
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
% of children aged 0–59 months with suspected ARI receiving antibiotics N/a N/a N/a 0.0135 N/a N/a N/a 0.0088
p (CI = 0) N/a N/a N/a p > 0.05 N/a N/a N/a p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a N/a
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. N/a = not applicable or data not available.
  3. 2. p (CI = 0) = probability of concentration index being equal to zero (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between a concentration index of zero, indicating perfect equality, and the obtained concentration index; such a result indicates inequality).
  4. 3. p (CI1997 = CI2006) = probability of concentration index for 1997 being equal to concentration index for 2006 (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between the concentration index in 1997 and the concentration index in 2006; such a result indicates a change in inequality over time).