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Table 5 Association between total hospital stays and location with adjustments for population and practice characteristics

From: Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

   Model 1    Model 2    Model 3    Model 4  
  OR* (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z
Age and sex             
Male < 30 ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Male30_34 1.89 (0.70 5.09) 0.099 1.84 (0.74 4.56) 0.084 1.52 (0.77 2.99) 0.115 1.44 (0.71 2.93) 0.204
Male35_39 1.22 (0.80 1.87) 0.228 1.21 (0.80 1.84) 0.230 1.23 (0.78 1.95) 0.247 1.08 (0.58 2.01) 0.753
Male40_44 2.75 (1.00 7.51) 0.010 2.69 (1.08 6.75) 0.005 1.79 (1.03 3.13) 0.007 1.85 (0.99 3.48) 0.013
Male45_49 2.12 (1.22 3.67) < 0.001 2.12 (1.23 3.64) < 0.001 1.90 (1.12 3.24) 0.002 1.80 (0.99 3.25) 0.011
Male50_54 2.91 (1.76 4.79) < 0.001 2.87 (1.79 4.60) < 0.001 2.68 (1.65 4.36) < 0.001 2.65 (1.45 4.90) < 0.001
Male55_59 3.93 (2.68 5.78) < 0.001 3.97 (2.73 5.80) < 0.001 3.76 (2.46 5.74) < 0.001 4.08 (2.35 6.90) < 0.001
Male60_64 6.49 (3.94 10.68) < 0.001 6.57 (3.97 10.88) < 0.001 6.35 (3.60 11.20) < 0.001 5.82 (3.21 10.68) < 0.001
Male65_69 5.29 (3.53 7.91) < 0.001 5.38 (3.65 7.94) < 0.001 4.96 (3.25 7.59) < 0.001 9.02 (5.22 15.58) < 0.001
Male70_74 7.57 (5.01 11.44) < 0.001 7.82 (5.23 11.70) < 0.001 6.90 (4.48 10.63) < 0.001 12.11 (6.91 21.06) < 0.001
Female < 30 0.96 (0.62 1.47) 0.787 0.98 (0.64 1.49) 0.887 0.82 (0.51 1.33) 0.291 0.72 (0.41 1.26) 0.130
Female30_34 1.90 (1.24 2.90) < 0.001 1.82 (1.20 2.75) < 0.001 1.37 (0.83 2.25) 0.104 1.18 (0.64 2.12) 0.500
Female35_39 1.71 (1.10 2.67) 0.002 1.69 (1.11 2.56) 0.001 1.39 (0.89 2.16) 0.056 1.50 (0.80 2.75) 0.098
Female40_44 2.01 (1.26 3.19) < 0.001 2.01 (1.29 3.14) < 0.001 1.82 (1.12 2.96) 0.002 1.63 (0.94 2.80) 0.022
Female45_49 2.58 (1.57 4.26) < 0.001 2.65 (1.61 4.37) < 0.001 2.51 (1.41 4.46) < 0.001 1.96 (1.06 3.64) 0.005
Female50_54 3.03 (1.99 4.62) < 0.001 3.05 (2.03 4.57) < 0.001 2.92 (1.85 4.63) < 0.001 3.35 (1.83 5.94) < 0.001
Female55_59 4.04 (2.78 5.89) < 0.001 4.02 (2.80 5.78) < 0.001 3.17 (2.12 4.75) < 0.001 3.50 (2.01 6.11) < 0.001
Female60_64 4.50 (2.82 7.19) < 0.001 4.50 (2.90 6.98) < 0.001 3.81 (2.48 5.83) < 0.001 3.87 (2.28 6.52) < 0.001
Female65_69 4.70 (2.88 7.68) < 0.001 4.72 (2.92 7.63) < 0.001 4.40 (2.43 7.96) < 0.001 7.70 (3.67 16.15) < 0.001
Female70_74 8.51 (5.73 12.64) < 0.001 8.53 (5.81 12.51) < 0.001 8.04 (5.12 12.63) < 0.001 14.02 (7.78 25.24) < 0.001
Location1             
PC     ref.    ref.      
US     0.85 (0.69 1.06) 0.061 0.87 (0.69 1.08) 0.098 0.86 (0.69 1.08) 0.088
AST     0.99 (0.65 1.49) 0.934 0.85 (0.60 1.19) 0.204 0.97 (0.65 1.46) 0.841
RST     0.71 (0.43 1.19) 0.089 0.69 (0.44 1.09) 0.037 0.89 (0.50 1.51) 0.496
VRST     1.25 (0.72 2.17) 0.301 1.08 (0.71 1.67) 0.625 1.26 (0.67 2.32) 0.364
AR     0.67 (0.46 0.98) 0.006 0.69 (0.51 0.95) 0.003 0.80 (0.57 1.08) 0.054
RR     0.80 (0.46 1.37) 0.286 1.08 (0.55 2.12) 0.777 1.39 (0.54 3.49) 0.388
VRR     0.93 (0.60 1.44) 0.659 1.04 (0.73 1.48) 0.791 0.97 (0.54 1.38) 0.433
Social Class             
Intermediate        ref.    ref.   
Professional        0.42 (0.27 0.63) < 0.001 0.39 (0.26 0.58) < 0.001
Skilled non-manual        0.93 (0.69 1.25) 0.534 1.00 (0.73 1.36) 0.988
Skilled manual        0.95 (0.72 1.28) 0.682 1.00 (0.74 1.36) 0.989
Partly skilled        1.07 (0.77 1.49) 0.637 1.24 (0.85 1.81) 0.139
Unskilled        1.24 (0.84 1.86) 0.154 1.28 (0.85 1.93) 0.130
House ownership             
Owned        ref.    ref.   
Publicly rented        2.19 (1.70 2.74) < 0.001 2.18 (1.69 2.81) < 0.001
Privately rented        1.12 (0.70 1.71) 0.519 1.16 (0.71 1.90) 0.443
Others        1.44 (0.81 2.19) 0.058 1.36 (0.74 2.58) 0.185
Practice char.             
WTE GPs per 1000 pop.           1.31 (0.64 2.68) 0.332
GPs age (mean)           1.01 (0.99 1.04) 0.164
Survey year 1998           0.37 (0.30 0.45) 0.201
Log pseudo-likelihood -36195    -36152    -33270    -29764   
Sample size 15435    15423    14448    13019   
Joint significance of rural           X2(7) = 8.64 p = 0.278  
  1. * OR Odds Ratio ref. reference group 1 PC Primary Cities, US Urban Settlements, AST Accessible Small Towns, RST Remote Small Towns, VRST Very Remote Small Towns, AR Accessible Rural, RR Remote Rural, VRR Very Remote Rural. 2 p-values calculated using standard errors clustered by practice