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Table 1 Mean, median and range for the out-of-pocket expenditure incurred for those who arrived alive at study hospitals following road traffic injury by select variables

From: Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India

Variable Category N Medical expenditure* (In USD) Non-medical expenditure† (In USD) Total expenditure ‡ (In USD)
Mean (SD) Median Range Mean (SD) Median Range Mean (SD) Median Range
Type of road user§ Pedestrian/cyclist 220 379.8 (880.5) 118.8 0-9,322.4 257.1 (290.3) 151.8 4.2- 1,636.4 636.9 (950) 341.4 5.8- 9,710.8
MTV 356 642.7 (1345.9) 262.7 0-17,498.0 349.5 (755) 166 3.7-10,472.7 992.1 (1716.7) 573.0 20.6- 1,716.7
Others 147 390.1 (577.4) 143.9 0-3,501.1 324.5 (646.6) 167 4.1 -5,405.3 714.6 (968.2) 398.3 17.7- 5,912.8
Type of hospital** Private   1095 (1775) 533 9-17,498 416.8 (1108) 127.3 3.7-10,472.7 1511.9 (2334.2) 800.8 71.4- 19,973.6
Public 555 334.7 (701.9) 119.3 0-9,322.4 285.8 (369.9) 170.3 4.1- 5,405.3 620.5 (836.8) 377.8 5.8- 9,709.8
Per capita annual household income quartile†† I (lowest) 197 439.2 (1422.4) 114.8 0-17,498 304.7 (495.2) 171.3 4.8- 5,405.3 743.8 (1657.1) 345.2 11.5-19,973.6
II 192 386.9 (818.6) 142.6 0-7,096.3 311.1 (606.7) 192.5 4.1- 7,663.6 698 (1088.2) 389.3 17.7- 8,085.2
III 153 376.6 (489.3) 165.1 0-3,062.5 253.8 (288.1) 136.8 3.7- 1,473 630.3 (608) 421.9 5.8- 3,560.5
IV (highest) 180 839.7 (1264.8) 360.6 0-9,322.4 386.9 (916.9) 138.3 7.2- 10,472.7 1226.6 (1737.5) 722.4 10.0-14,451.1
Total   723 511.3 (1100) 169.3 0- 17,498 316.3 (626.1) 162.5 3.7-10,472.7 827.6 (1392.6) 446.5 5.8 19,973.6
  1. SD refers to standard deviation.
  2. *Medical expenses paid at the hospital including the expenses for ambulance services.
  3. †Non-medical expenses include transport expenses other than those for ambulance, food and phone expenses incurred by the household related to this road traffic crash (RTC), repair/damage expenses of vehicle involved in RTC, legal and other miscellaneous expenses.
  4. ‡Sum of medical and non-medical expenses.
  5. ¶USD: United States Dollar; 1 USD was approximately Indian Rupees 44 during the study period.
  6. §Kruskal test for equality of median: p = 0.614, 0.476 and <0.001 for medical, non-medical and total expenditure respectively; MTV: motorosied two-wheeled vehicles including moped/luna, scooter/scootertte and motorcycle; others include all vehicles other than MTV/ cycle & pedestrians.
  7. **Kruskal test for equality of median: p = 0.084, 0.537 and <0.001 for medical, non-medical and total expenditure respectively.
  8. ††Data not available for 1 participant; Kruskal test for equality of median: p = 0.001, 0.041 and <0.001 for medical, non-medical and total expenditure respectively.