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Table 2 Summary of quality of identified quantitative studies

From: Determinants of demand for total hip and knee arthroplasty: a systematic literature review

Study (lead investigator) Subjects Joint Question/End point Score* Generalisable
Borkhoff [55, 56] Primary care and surgeons Knee Referral 3 No(standardised cases)
Boutron [60] Primary care doctors Knee and hip Referral 4 Yes
Quintana [5759] Specialists Knee and hip Recommendation 3 Yes
Birk [54] Waiting list patients Knee and hip Decision to change surgeon 2 No
Birrell [22] Primary care patients Hip Waiting list placement 2 Yes
Card [47] Older adults Hip and knee Arthroplasty 2 Yes
Conner-Spady [27, 53] Waiting list patients Knee and hip Hypothetical change of surgeon 3 No
Cross [79] Operated patients Knee and hip Willingness to pay 3 No
Dunlop [29] Older adults Knee and hip Arthroplasty 2 Yes
George [20] OA Medicare patients Hip Arthroplasty 3 No
Hanchate [21] Older adults Knee Arthroplasty 3 Yes
Hawker [26] OA patients Knee and hip Arthroplasty 4 Yes
Hawker [3033] OA patients Knee and hip Willingness to operate 3 Yes
Ibrahim [3942] Primary care males VA patients Knee and hip Willingness to operate 1 No
Johnson [61] Primary care patients Hip Waiting list placement 1 Yes
Judge [28] Older adults Knee and hip Arthroplasty 2 Yes
Juni [36, 37] Primary care patients Knee and hip Waiting list placement/Willingness to operate 1 Yes
Lievense [19] Primary care patients Hip Arthroplasty 2 Yes
Linsell [52] Retirement age adults Hip and knee Willingness to operate 2 Yes
Momohara [23] RA patients Knee Arthroplasty 2 Yes
Riddle [78] OA patients Knee Arthroplasty 2 No
Schonberg [46] Retirement age OA patients Knee and hip Referral 2 No
Steel [38] OA/RA patients Knee and hip Arthroplasty 3 Yes
Suarez-Almazor [44, 45] OA patients Knee Willingness to operate 3 Yes
Yong [48] Non-obese retirement age adults Knee Arthroplasty 2 No
Zeni [18] OA patients Knee Arthroplasty 2 Yes
  1. *Sum of individual internal validity criterion rating (1 = study met criterion; 0 otherwise; maximum score: 4). Criteria: Prospective/longitudinal study and analysis; adjustment for confounding; reporting of attrition; doctor-assessed need.