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Table 2 Baseline characteristics in SMARTSteps, a quasi-experimental evaluation trial of a language-concordant automated telephone diabetes self-management health plan intervention

From: Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

Characteristic Enrolled
(N = 362)
Declined (N = 160) p-value Non-Contacted (N = 168) p-value
Age in years, mean +/- SD 54.8 (8.4) 56.2 (9.2) 0.03 54.5 (10.9) 0.93
Female, n (%) 258 (71.3) 98 (61.3) 0.02 111 (66.1) 0.23
Race/ethnicity, n (%)    < 0.01   0.10
Asian 212 (58.6) 97 (60.6)   84 (50.0)  
Black/African-American 25 (6.9) 9 (5.6)   18 (10.7)  
White/Caucasian 34 (9.4) 31 (19.4)   20 (11.9)  
Latino/Hispanic 81 (22.4) 16 (10.0)   38 (22.6)  
Native American/Eskimo 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)   2 (1.2)  
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 3 (0.8) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0)  
Other 5 (1.4) 6 (3.8)   5 (3.0)  
Unknown 1 (0.3) 1 (0.6)   1 (0.6)  
Language, n (%)    < 0.01   < 0.01
English 121 (33.4) 81 (50.6)   95 (56.5)  
Spanish 61 (16.9) 6 (3.8)   22 (13.1)  
Cantonese 180 (49.7) 73 (45.6)   51 (30.4)  
Financial Class - Insurance Type, n (%)    0.83   0.04
Healthy Worker 255 (70.6) 112 (70.0)   95 (56.5)  
Medicaid 82 (22.7) 35 (21.9)   53 (31.6)  
Medicare 16 (4.4) 9 (5.6)   10 (6.0)  
Healthy San Francisco 5 (1.4) 2 (1.3)   6 (3.6)  
Uninsured 3 (0.8) 1 (0.6)   3 (1.8)  
Commercial 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6)   1 (0.6)  
Healthy Kids 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0)  
Cardiometabolic Indicators, mean +/- SD      
Hemoglobin A1c 7.7 (1.6) 7.6 (1.5) 0.09 7.9 (1.9) 0.82
Systolic blood pressure 128.6 (17.6) 128.8 (16.7) 0.80 131.6 (19.2) 0.38
Diastolic blood pressure 74.7 (11.2) 75.2 (11.0) 0.48 75.6 (10.2) 0.31
Low-density lipoprotein 95.0 (30.6) 95.0 (34.3) 0.99 105.2 (34.0) < 0.01
  1. * All p-values were derived from chi-square tests for categorical variables, t-tests for interval variables if normally distributed and Wilcoxon tests if interval variables not normally distributed (age and cardiometabolic indicators).
  2. † P-values for race/ethnicity were calculated based on categories of Asian/Pacific Islander, Black/African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American/Other/Unknown, and White/Caucasian.
  3. ‡P-values for financial class were calculated based on categories of Healthy Worker/Healthy San Francisco, Medicaid (Community Alternatives Program or Fee-For-Service), Medicare, and Commercial/Uninsured.