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Table 1 Some examples of validated questionnaires capturing (aspects of) patient empowerment

From: Patient empowerment: The need to consider it as a measurable patient-reported outcome for chronic conditions


Conditions-specific or generic?

Construct operationalised


Patient Enablement Instrument


Aspects of perceived control over illness

Howie et al. 1998 [19]

Patient Activation Measure


Activation levels (skills, knowledge, and beliefs needed by patients to self-manage, collaborate with healthcare providers and maintain their health)

Hibbard et al. 2005 [20]

The Empowerment Scale

Conditions-specific: Mental healthcare

Self-efficacy, power-powerlessness, community activism, righteous anger, and optimism-control over the future

Rogers et al. 1997 [21],

Diabetes Empowerment Scale

Conditions-specific: Diabetes


Anderson et al. 2000 [22]

Patient Empowerment Scale

Conditions-specific: Cancer

Use of coping resources, an aspect of personal control

Bulsara et al. 2006 [23]

Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale

Conditions-specific: Genetic conditions

Perceived personal control (cognitive, decisional and behavioural control), hope and emotional regulation

McAllister et al. 2011 [24]