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Table 1 Some examples of validated questionnaires capturing (aspects of) patient empowerment

From: Patient empowerment: The need to consider it as a measurable patient-reported outcome for chronic conditions

Measure Conditions-specific or generic? Construct operationalised Reference
Patient Enablement Instrument Generic Aspects of perceived control over illness Howie et al. 1998 [19]
Patient Activation Measure Generic Activation levels (skills, knowledge, and beliefs needed by patients to self-manage, collaborate with healthcare providers and maintain their health) Hibbard et al. 2005 [20]
The Empowerment Scale Conditions-specific: Mental healthcare Self-efficacy, power-powerlessness, community activism, righteous anger, and optimism-control over the future Rogers et al. 1997 [21],
Diabetes Empowerment Scale Conditions-specific: Diabetes Self-efficacy Anderson et al. 2000 [22]
Patient Empowerment Scale Conditions-specific: Cancer Use of coping resources, an aspect of personal control Bulsara et al. 2006 [23]
Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale Conditions-specific: Genetic conditions Perceived personal control (cognitive, decisional and behavioural control), hope and emotional regulation McAllister et al. 2011 [24]