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Table 1 Principal characteristics for hospital admission according to the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates. Barcelona (Spain), 2005–2006 (n = 402)

From: Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition

  Non-resistant PA Resistant PA Multi-drug resistant PA P *
  N = 149 (37.1%) N = 119 (29.6%) N = 134 (33.3%)  
YEAR     
 2005 77 (51.7) 60 (50.4) 78 (58.2) 0.402
 2006 72 (48.3) 59 (49.6) 56 (41.8)  
PATIENT VARIABLES     
Male sex, n (%) 87 (58.4) 80 (67.2) 100 (74.6) 0.015
Age, years     
  Mean (sd) 68.6 (17.0) 67.4 (17.0) 67.4 (13.7) 0.348**
  Median 71.0 73.0 70.5  
Clinical conditions, n (%)     
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 33 (22.1) 30 (25.2) 40 (29.9) 0.332
  Solid neoplasia 41 (27.5) 25 (21.0) 27 (20.1) 0.289
  Diabetes mellitus 26 (17.4) 28 (23.5) 23 (17.2) 0.364
  Renal disease 15 (10.1) 5 (4.2) 19 (14.2) 0.021
  Liver disease 10 (6.7) 10 (8.4) 17 (12.7) 0.216
  HIV infection 6 (4.0) 4 (3.4) 4 (3.0) 0.942
  Hematological neoplasia 5 (3.4) 4 (3.4) 4 (3.0) 1.000
  Chemotherapy 1 (0.7) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.2) 0.531
Source of infection     
  Respiratory 64 (42.9) 57 (47.9) 63 (47.0) 0.677
  Skin & soft tissue 41 (27.5) 32 (26.9) 23 (17.2) 0.076
  Genitourinary 26 (17.5) 15 (12.6) 27 (20.2) 0.275
  Catheter 7 (4.7) 3 (2.5) 9 (6.7) 0.306
  Endovascular 2 (1.3) 7 (5.9) 7 (5.2) 0.099
  Abscess 3 (2.0) 5 (4.2) 1 (0.8) 0.184
  Peritonitis 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.5) 0.386
  Digestive 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 0.779
  Others 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 1.000
Underlying illness severity score     
  1-3 112 (77.8) 62 (56.9) 68 (53.5) <0.001
  4 32 (22.1) 47 (41.2) 59 (45.0)  
HOSPITALIZATION VARIABLES     
Previous hospitalization, n (%)     
  None 68 (45.6) 39 (32.8) 42 (31.3) 0.068
  1 28 (18.8) 22 (18.5) 21 (15.7)  
  2 20 (13.4) 20 (16.8) 20 (14.9)  
  > = 3 33 (22.1) 38 (31.9) 51 (38.1)  
Invasive devices or procedures, n (%)     
  Mechanical ventilation 9 (6.0) 29 (24.4) 31 (23.1) <0.001
  Hemodialisys 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7) 8 (6.0) 0.002
  Bronchoscopy 13 (8.7) 12 (10.1) 23 (17.2) 0.080
  Digestive endoscopy 12 (8.1) 6 (5.0) 12 (9.0) 0.479
  Surgery 91 (61.1) 74 (62.2) 80 (59.7) 0.917
Previous ICU stay (yes), n (%) 18 (12.1) 40 (33.6) 34 (25.4) <0.001
LOS before detection, days     
  Mean (sd) 12.9 (10.0) 17.9 (15.5) 21.9 (14.9) <0.001**
  Median 10.0 14.0 18.0  
Total LOS, days     
  Mean (sd) 25.1 (16.1) 39.0 (30.3) 45.7 (29.1) <0.001**
  Median 20.0 30.0 39.0  
Previous antibiotic therapy, n (%)     
  None 69 (46.3) 25 (21.0) 15 (11.2) <0.001
  No anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa drugs 60 (40.3) 40 (33.6) 25 (18.7)  
  Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa drugs 20 (13.4) 54 (45.4) 94 (70.1)  
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 19 (12.8) 26 (21.8) 33 (24.6) 0.026
  1. *Otherwise indicated p value derived form Fisher’s exact test. **p value derived from Kruskal Wallis test.
  2. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; ICU: intensive care unit; LOS: length of hospital stay.