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Table 1 Summary of outcomes reported in two or more studies for different models of care for intervention participants relative to controls

From: A systematic review of different models of home and community care services for older persons

  Case management Integrated care Consumer directed care
  Higher No difference Lower Higher No difference Lower Higher No difference Lower
Clinical outcomes (ideally increased)          
Function (ADLs/IADLs) R+++, N, N R, N   O R, R, N   O N  
Cognition R+++ N, N, O    R, N    N  
Medication management R, O++ N       N  
Quality of life R R   N     R, N  
Physical health O+     R   O R, N  
Social interaction or support    O+   R     
Clinical outcomes (ideally decreased)          
Depression, psychological health   R, N R+++   R, R, N, O   R N  
Risk of mortality   R, R, O R+++   R, R, O     N
Caregiver burden/distress   R, O    R    N  
Pain    N   R, O     
Satisfaction (ideally increased)          
Satisfaction with care   R   R+++ R, O   O, O, O   
Caregiver satisfaction O+++    R O     
Life satisfaction R++       O   
Service use          
Risk of nursing home admission   R R++, R++, R+, R+ O+ R, R, N     
Risk of hospital admissions   R R+++, R+ N, O++, O R,R     
Risk of emergency admissions R+ R, O R++ N, O R     
Community service use R+++, R++    R++, O    R, O   
Length of hospital stay   R, O R+++ N O     
  1. R = Randomized Controlled Trial, N = Non-randomized Controlled Trial, O = Observational study (case controlled, cross-sectional, longitudinal or retrospective); + = small, ++ = medium, +++ = large effect size; effect sizes were reported whenever possible.