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Table 3 Factors associated with Mental Distress as identified by the informants

From: Conceptual models for Mental Distress among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: A contribution to clinical practice and research in primary-health-care centers in Zambia

Category of factor Frequency Symptoms/comments
Worries about money 51 Concerns about rent, day-to-day living, school fees
Problems of the mind 47 Recurrent headaches, sleeplessness, unhappiness, trouble thinking, loss of appetite, night mares
Unknown cause of symptoms 32 Most common among informants not acknowledging symptoms as an illness or as mental distress, suggested witchcraft
Relationship with spouse and family members 26 Commonest among women, included crying more than usual, unhappiness, headaches, sleeplessness.
Ill health 24 Sleeplessness, daily life suffering, inability to play useful role in life, tiredness
Low self-esteem 16 Worthlessness, loss of interest, unhappiness, crying more than usual, difficulty enjoying daily activities, experience of stigma
Recent life events 6 Bereavement, divorces, newly diagnosed with chronic disease including HIV. Included symptoms of restlessness, sleeplessness, trouble thinking, headache, unhappiness