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Table 5 Generalized Estimating Equations

From: Predictors and outcomes of patient safety culture in hospitals

   Patient Safety Grade Number of Events Reported
   OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Composite Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety 1.23 (1.03 - 1.47) 0.024 0.93 (0.83 - 1.03) 0.152
  Organizational Learning-Continuous Improvement 1.30 (1.03 - 1.65) 0.029 1.11 (0.94 - 1.32) 0.227
  Teamwork Within Hospital Units 1.64 (1.40 - 1.93) <0.001 0.97 (0.85 - 1.12) 0.708
  Communication Openness 1.09 (0.94 - 1.26) 0.256 1.03 (0.92 - 1.15) 0.579
  Feedback and Communication About Errors 1.54 (1.33 - 1.78) <0.001 1.17 (1.03 - 1.32) 0.013
  Non-punitive Response to Error 1.02 (0.91 - 1.15) 0.768 1.10 (0.99 - 1.22) 0.066
  Staffing 1.31 (1.16 - 1.48) <0.001 1.05 (0.93 - 1.19) 0.380
  Hospital Management Support for Patient Safety 1.85 (1.53 - 2.28) <0.001 1.02 (0.90 - 1.16) 0.703
  Hospital Handoffs and Transitions 1.36 (1.15 - 1.61) <0.001 0.79 (0.68 - 0.91) 0.003
  Teamwork Across Hospital Units 1.14 (0.92 - 1.40) 0.226 0.94 (0.82 - 1.08) 0.409
Position Physician 0.79 (0.50 - 1.23) 0.292 1.30 (0.83 - 2.03) 0.258
  Pharmacist 1.07 (0.26 - 4.33) 0.925 2.14 (0.77 - 5.97) 0.146
  Other health professions 0.73 (0.67 - 1.49) 0.389 1.22 (0.60 - 2.46) 0.579
  Unit assistant/Clerk/Secretary/Technician 1.79 (1.17 - 2.74) 0.008 0.78 (0.55 - 1.13) 0.190
  Administration 0.39 (0.27 - 0.57) <0.001 3.57 (1.99 - 6.40) <0.001
  Quality and Safety 0.93 (0.39 - 2.58) 0.887 3.14 (1.24 - 7.91) 0.015
  Other 1.66 (1.12 - 2.48) 0.012 1.28 (0.95 - 1.72) 0.104
  Nurse 1   1  
Accredited Yes 1.13 (0.69 - 1.46) 0.365 1.23 (0.88 - 1.73) 0.232
  No 1   1  
Hospital Size Small 0.83 (0.88 - 1.14) 0.246 1.29 (0.67 - 2.46) 0.450
  Medium 1.03 (0.70 - 1.42) 0.859 1.22 (0.64 - 2.32) 0.542
  Large 1   1  
N   3653   3207