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Table 3 Comparison of means between patient safety grade and number of events reported with patient safety culture composite scores

From: Predictors and outcomes of patient safety culture in hospitals

  Patient Safety Grade Number of Events Reported
   Poor or Failing Acceptable Excellent/Very Good   No event reports 1 to 5 event reports >5 events reported
  Sig. Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Sig. Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety a,b,c 3.00 (0.84) 3.39 (0.69) 3.82 (0.62)   3.71 (0.67) 3.70 (0.67) 3.72 (0.72)
Organizational Learning-Continuous Improvement a,b,c 3.26 (0.93) 3.72 (0.63) 4.04 (0.56) c 3.93 (0.62) 3.96 (0.58) 4.02 (0.62)
Teamwork Within Hospital Units a,b,c 3.37 (0.88) 3.75 (0.66) 4.14 (0.57)   4.02 (0.65) 4.04 (0.59) 4.04 (0.68)
Communication Openness a,b,c 2.88 (0.92) 3.33 (0.86) 3.76 (0.80) b,c 3.62 (0.87) 3.65 (0.81) 3.77 (0.87)
Feedback and Communication About Errors a,b,c 2.88 (1.09) 3.51 (0.87) 4.12 (0.76) a,b,c 3.90 (0.88) 3.97 (0.81) 4.08 (0.81)
Non-punitive Response to Error b,c 2.42 (0.91) 2.46 (0.76) 2.66 (0.79) b,c 2.58 (0.78) 2.62 (0.78) 2.74 (0.89)
Staffing a,b,c 2.41 (0.80) 2.65 (0.68) 2.97 (0.75)   2.89 (0.77) 2.91 (0.73) 2.89 (0.76)
Hospital Management Support for Patient Safety a,b,c 3.04 (0.97) 3.62 (0.71) 4.14 (0.65)   4.00 (0.72) 4.00 (0.71) 3.97 (0.83)
Hospital Handoffs and Transitions a,b,c 2.80 (0.76) 3.03 (0.76) 3.49 (0.76) b,c 3.40 (0.80) 3.34 (0.76) 3.19 (0.82)
Teamwork Across Hospital Units a,b,c 2.64 (0.69) 3.09 (0.67) 3.56 (0.68) b 3.44 (0.73) 3.42 (0.68) 3.34 (0.77)
  1. Patient Safety Grade
  2. a. Significant difference between "Poor or Failing" and "Acceptable"
  3. b. Significant difference between "Poor or Failing" and "Excellent/Very Good"
  4. c. Significant difference between "Acceptable" and "Excellent/Very Good"
  5. Number of Events Reported
  6. a. Significant difference between "No events reported" and "1 to 5 events reported"
  7. b. Significant difference between "No events reported" and "> 5 events reported"
  8. c. Significant difference between "1 to 5 events reported" and "> 5 events reported"