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Table 4 Comparison of changes within and between the groups.

From: Effect of an institutional development plan for user participation on professionals' knowledge, practice, and attitudes. A controlled study

  WITHIN BETWEEN
  Intervention
N = 1821
Control
N = 2561
Intervention vs. Control
Variable AdjOR (95% CI) p-value AdjOR (95% CI) p-value Ratio OR (95% CI) p-value
Knowledge       
8b. # Does your unit solicit input from user organisation for the planning of mental health services? (% yes) 1.3(0.7-2.4) 0.390 1.9(1.1-3.2)** 0.014 0.7(0.3-1.5) 0.334
11. Are users invited to participate in staff training meetings at your unit? (% yes) 11.6 (2.6-52.3)** 0.001 2.7(1.1-6.4)** 0.030 4.4(0.8-25.0)* 0.098
12. Has your unit ever asked users to act as teachers at staff training events? (% yes) 3.0(1.0-8.8)** 0.046 1.6(0.9-3.0) 0.116 1.8(0.5-6.3) 0.340
21. # Does the unit have a users' committee? (% yes) 1.6(0.9-3.1) 0.130 1.0(0.6-1.6) 0.949 1.7(0.7-3.8) 0.220
22. # Does the unit have representatives or spokespersons on behalf of the users? (% yes) 1.7(0.8-3.3) 0.142 1.2(0.7-2.0) 0.531 1.4(0.6-3.4) 0.418
Practice       
3. Are users told they have a right to see and/or correct their records? (% yes) 1.8(0.9-3.4)* 0.072 1.1(0.7-1.9) 0.627 1.6(0.7-3.6) 0.270
7. Do you tell users what goals are intended to be accomplished by the treatment? (% yes) 2.2(0.9-5.4)* 0.094 2.2(0.7-6.6) 0.176 1.0(0.2-4.2) 0.995
26. # In your opinion, are next of kin in general sufficiently involved? (% yes) 0.8(0.4-1.7) 0.640 1.5(0.8-2.6) 0.172 0.6(0.2-1.4) 0.221
Attitudes       
6. In most cases, where does the responsibility for deciding the goals of treatment usually lie? (% entirely/mostly the user) 1.8(0.6-5.1) 0.281 0.5(0.2-1.3) 0.152 3.3(0.9-13.0)* 0.082
14. Should users be involved in the evaluation of their presenting problems? (% always/usually) 3.0(0.9-10.2)* 0.073 1.8(0.7-4.8) 0.233 1.7(0.4-7.9) 0.514
23. # How would you describe the unit's general attitude towards user participation? (% very/quite good) 1.6(0.9-3.1) 0.121 1.2(0.7-2.0) 0.605 1.4(0.6-3.3) 0.393
18. In your opinion, what are the most important reasons when users of mental health care don't want to be involved?       
- Lacking in self-confidence (% yes) 0.5 (0.3-0.9)** 0.026 0.6 (0.4-1.1)* 0.085 0.8 (0.4-1.7) 0.550
- Lacking in motivation (% yes) 0.7 (0.3-1.1) 0.123 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 0.977 0.7 (0.3-1.5) 0.315
- Lack of trust in the ability of the services to provide help (% yes) 0.6 (0.3-1.2) 0.169 0.9 (0.5-1.6) 0.761 0.7 (0.3-1.7) 0.416
- Other reasons (% yes) 0.4 (0.2-1.1) 0.076 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 0.793 0.5 (0.1-1.5) 0.188
20. In your opinion, how would the service develop if users were involved in planning and/or carrying out the mental health service?:       
- More chance that users would benefit from those services the first time round (% yes) 0.6 (0.3-1.3) 0.178 0.8 (0.4-1.4) 0.388 0.7 (0.3-2.0) 0.562
- Downgrading of services and delivery (% yes) 4.8 (0.5-45.9) 0.173 1.0 (0.3-3.2) 0.978 4.9 (0.4-61.9) 0.221
  1. The table only shows variables with p ≤ 0.2. For the within-group analysis, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AdjOR) > 1.0 favours increase from baseline to follow-up. For the between-group analysis, Ratio Odds Ratio (ROR) > 1.0 favours intervention.
  2. 1 N is the no of participants who returned completed questionnaires. The N in the four samples varied for each question due to missing answers on the variables (0%-8.2%).
  3. * p-value < 0.1
  4. ** p-value < 0.05
  5. # Questions marked # were added to the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ) in this study.
  6. p-value calculated using logistic regression and test of proportions.