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Table 3 Regression models of medical utilization during the 2-year follow-up period

From: Long-term medical utilization following ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute stroke and traumatic brain injury patients: a case-control study

  Hospitalization expenses b Outpatient expenses b Total medical expenses b Number of ER visits c Number of readmissions c Hospitalization days c ICU
days c
  β β β β β β β
VAP        
   No (control group)a        
   Yes (case group) 1.103 0.934 1.064 -0.013 0.057** 0.054*** 0.265***
Age 1.006** 0.995*** 1.011*** 0.005*** 0.008*** 0.008*** 0.020***
Gender        
   Female a        
   Male 1.229** 0.978 1.257*** 0.256*** 0.178*** 0.134*** 0.420***
Diagnosis at hospitalization        
   Traumatic brain injury a        
   Acute hemorrhagic stroke 1.264** 1.543*** 1.465*** 0.124** 0.217*** 0.333*** 0.462***
   Acute ischemic stroke 1.411*** 1.088 1.438*** 0.083 0.203*** 0.373*** 0.622***
Hospital size        
   Medical center a        
   Regional hospital 0.915 0.885 0.946 -0.034 -0.032 -0.124*** 0.211***
   District hospital 0.924 0.615*** 0.792* -0.298*** -0.056 -0.131*** 0.296***
Chronic respiratory disease history        
   No a        
   Yes 0.951 0.810** 0.856* -0.068 -0.040 -0.022*** -0.030
Ventilation days 1.034*** 0.990*** 1.031*** -0.009*** 0.019*** 0.030*** 0.007***
Number of Elixhauser comorbidities 1.072*** 1.040* 1.086*** 0.066*** 0.031*** 0.005*** 0.105***
R-Square 0.091 0.028 0.087     
  1. aReference group; b robust regression; c Poisson regression
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001