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Table 3 Mean Scores and Standard Partial Regression Coefficient of the Items of the Japanese HSOPS

From: Development and applicability of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) in Japan

   M SD F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
D1 When a mistake is made, but is caught and corrected before affecting the patient, how often is this reported? 3.71 1.1 .70            
D2 When a mistake is made, but has no potential to harm the patient, how often is this reported? 4.05 1.1 .99            
D3 When a mistake is made that could harm the patient, but does not, how often is this reported? 4.13 1.1 .86            
A15 Patient safety is never sacrificed to get more work done. 3.42 0.9   .44           
A18 Our procedures and systems are good at preventing errors from happening. 3.49 0.8   .58           
A10* It is just by chance that more serious mistakes don't happen around here. 3.36 1.0   .55           
A17* We have patient safety problems in this unit. 3.54 0.9   .61           
B1 My supervisor/manager says a good word when he/she sees a job done according to established patient safety procedures. 3.12 0.9    .55          
B2 My supervisor/manager seriously considers staff suggestions for improving patient safety. 3.45 0.9    .75          
B3* Whenever pressure builds up, my supervisor/manager wants us to work faster, even if it means taking shortcuts. 4.00 0.9    .49          
B4* My supervisor/manager overlooks patient safety problems that happen over and over. 4.10 0.9    .65          
A6 We are actively doing things to improve patient safety. 3.75 0.8     .66         
A9 Mistakes have led to positive changes here. 3.52 0.8     .64         
A13 After we make changes to improve patient safety, we evaluate their effectiveness. 3.17 0.8     .55         
A1 People support one another in this unit. 3.90 0.8      .82        
A3 When a lot of work needs to be done quickly, we work together as a team to get the work done. 3.77 0.8      .81        
A4 In this unit, people treat each other with respect. 3.49 0.9      .71        
A11 When one area in this unit gets really busy, others help out. 3.74 0.9      .64        
C2 Staff will freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect patient care. 3.42 0.9       .62       
C4 Staff feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority. 3.38 1.0       .65       
C6* Staff are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right. 3.57 1.0       .52       
C1 We are given feedback about changes put into place based on event reports. 3.28 0.9        .63      
C3 We are informed about errors that happen in this unit. 3.86 0.9        .77      
C5 In this unit, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again. 3.58 0.9        .80      
A8* Staff feel like their mistakes are held against them. 2.90 1.0         .68     
A12* When an event is reported, it feels like the person is being written up, not the problem. 3.13 1.0         .78     
A16* Staff worry that mistakes they make are kept in their personnel file. 3.58 0.9         .56     
A2 We have enough staff to handle the workload. 2.58 1.1          .44    
A5* Staff in this unit work longer hours than is best for patient care. 2.71 1.1          .36    
A7* We use more agency/temporary staff than is best for patient care. 3.76 1.0          .19    
A14* We work in "crisis mode," trying to do too much, too quickly. 3.08 1.0          .79    
F1 Hospital management provides a work climate that promotes patient safety. 3.63 0.8           .63   
F8 The actions of hospital management show that patient safety is a top priority. 3.39 0.9           .61   
F9* Hospital management seems interested in patient safety only after an adverse event happens. 3.23 1.0           .53   
F4 There is good cooperation among hospital units that need to work together. 3.47 0.8            .61  
F10 Hospital units work well together to provide the best care for patients. 3.47 0.8            .67  
F2* Hospital units do not coordinate well with each other. 2.96 0.9            .61  
F6* It is often unpleasant to work with staff from other hospital units. 3.24 0.9            .56  
F3* Things "fall between the cracks" when transferring patients from one unit to another. 3.03 0.9             .63
F5* Important patient care information is often lost during shift changes. 3.23 0.8             .66
F7* Problems often occur in the exchange of information across hospital units. 3.15 0.8             .72
F11* Shift changes are problematic for patients in this hospital. 3.25 0.8             .53
  1. Note: A1 through A18, B1 through B4, C1 through C6, D1 through D3, and F1 through F22 indicate the question number of HSOPS.
  2. *This is the reverse worded. The means reported have been reverse scored.