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Table 6 Impact of Bleeding Complication Status on Total Hospital Costs: Comparison of GEE and OLS Models

From: Impact of bleeding-related complications and/or blood product transfusions on hospital costs in inpatient surgical patients

Surgical Cohort GEE OLS
  Model Estimate (CI)* P-value Model Estimate (CI)* P-value
Cardiac 1.31 (1.30, 1.32) < 0.001 1.36 (1.35, 1.36) < 0.001
Vascular 1.93 (1.93, 1.95) < 0.001 1.93 (1.92, 1.95) < 0.001
Non-cardiac thoracic 1.60 (1.58, 1.60) < 0.001 1.57 (1.55, 1.58) < 0.001
Solid organ 1.72 (1.68, 1.73) < 0.001 1.70 (1.68, 1.72) < 0.001
General 1.46 (1.46, 1.48) < 0.001 1.34 (1.34, 1.35) < 0.001
Knee/hip 1.22 (1.21, 1.22) < 0.001 1.20 (1.20, 1.21) < 0.001
Reproductive organ 1.49 (1.48, 1.51) < 0.001 1.43 (1.42, 1.43) < 0.001
Spinal 1.79 (1.77, 1.80) < 0.001 1.82 (1.80, 1.84) < 0.001
  1. CI = confidence interval, GEE = generalized estimating equations, OLS = ordinary least squares
  2. *Ratio of average total costs for patients with bleeding-related complications versus those without complications
  3. Note: 15 patients were excluded from the economic analysis because their hospital costs exceeded $1,000,000.
  4. GEE model estimated by gamma log link function with total costs as the dependent variable, adjusted for baseline clinical, demographic, hospital characteristics and clustering on hospital.
  5. OLS model with log total costs as the dependent variable, adjusted for baseline clinical, demographic, and hospital characteristics.