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Table 4 Effort-reward imbalance, job strain and self-rated quality of care (SERVQUAL; lower tertile), medical errors (upper tertile) controlling for gender, occupational position, job experience: Odds ratiosa (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)

From: Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery

  Organisation of care Patient orientation Medical errors
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Effort-reward imbalance model    
   ERI ≤ 1 1 1 1
   ERI > 1 2.33 (1.76-3.09) 1.90 (1.43-2.53) 1.24 (0.90-1.69)
   Overcommitment (lower two tertiles) 1 1 1
   Overcommitment (upper tertile) 1.29 (0.99-1.67) 0.94 (0.73-1.23) 1.36 (1.01-1.82)
Control variables    
Male 1 1 1
Female 0.91 (0.71-1.18) 0.87 (0.68-1.13) 1.05 (0.79-1.39)
Chief/senior physicians 1 1 1
Residents 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 1.09 (0.76-1.56) 1.39 (0.93-2.08)
Job experience > 9 years 1 1 1
Job experience ≤ 9 years 1.85 (1.35-2.55) 1.65 (1.21-2.26) 1.05 (0.74-1.49)
   Cox and Snell Pseudo-R2 0.054 0.035 0.012
   Nagelkerke's Pseudo-R2 0.074 0.047 0.018
   Significance level (Chi2) 0.000 0.000 0.015
Demand-control model    
   No strain (low demands/high control) 1 1  
   Active job (high demands/high control) 2.84 (1.99-4.06) 1.59 (1.10-2.29) 1.28 (0.86-1.91)
   Passive job (low demands/low control) 1.80 (1.27-2.54) 2.16 (1.53-3.03) 1.33 (0.92-1.92)
   Job strain (high demands/low control) 3.21 (2.23-4.61) 3.08 (2.14-4.42) 1.04 (0.70-1.57)
Control variables    
Male 1 1 1
Female 0.82 (0.64-1.05) 0.78 (0.61-1.00) 1.07 (0.81-1.41)
Chief/senior physicians 1 1 1
Residents 1.00 (0.70-1.42) 0.95 (0.67-1.36) 1.36 (0.91-2.03)
Job experience > 9 years 1 1 1
Job experience ≤ 9 years 1.53 (1.13-2.08) 1.36 (1.01-1.85) 1.17 (0.84-1.64)
   Cox and Snell Pseudo-R2 0.059 0.045 0.011
   Nagelkerke's Pseudo-R2 0.080 0.062 0.017
   Significance level (Chi2) 0.000 0.000 0.022
  1. aSignificant odds ratios are bold