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Table 3 Changes in intermediate outcomes

From: Application of a theoretical model to evaluate COPD disease management

Indicator Baseline
(Mean ± SD)
12 months
(Mean ± SD)
Change
(95% CI)
p-value
Psycho-social mediators     
Initiative beliefs (scale 1-6) 4.04 (± 0.74) 4.10 (± 0.77) 0.06 (-0.06; 0.18) 0.335
Investment beliefs (scale 1-6) 4.13 (± 0.76) 4.24 (± 0.74) 0.10 (0.01; 0.20) 0.049
Self-efficacy     
Self-efficacy (scale 1-6) 4.24 (± 0.74) 4.23 (± 0.78) -0.01 (-0.11; 0.10) 0.865
Knowledge on COPD     
Subjective knowledge (scale 1-5) 2.84 (± 0.84) 3.22 (± 0.82) 0.38 (0.24; 0.51) 0.000
Objective knowledge (scale 1-10) 4.49 (± 2.10) 4.92 (± 2.03) 0.43 (0.16; 0.69) 0.002
Behaviour     
Smoking status* (% smoking) 23% 22% 1% 0.180
Medication compliance (scale 1-5) 4.41 (± 0.63) 4.58 (± 0.58) 0.17 (0.05; 0.28) 0.003
Physical activity (scale 1-5) 2.80 (± 0.54) 2.85 (± 0.53) 0.05 (-0.02; 0.12) 0.167
  1. * Negative change means improvement; Positive change means improvement