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Table 1 Most important elements of CRM

From: Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

Element Rating References Questions in the instrument
Systematic approach to clinical risks and patient safety Key requirement for CRM [2, 39, 40, 55] Q1, Q3, Q9-Q13, Q24
Implementation of the RM process Key requirement for systematic CRM [6, 40, 56] Q15, Q23
Leadership Necessary condition for successful execution of CRM [2, 5, 13, 5759] Q16, Q26
Participation of staff Necessary condition for successful execution of CRM [13, 40, 56, 58] Q14, Q16, Q26
Safety culture Necessary condition for blame-free CRM [5, 13, 21, 58, 60, 61] Q14, Q26
Learning from incidents or errors Compulsory as not to repeat mistakes [2, 15, 16, 62] Q19, Q20, Q21, Q28
Education and training Knowledge and skills need to be regularly updated [13, 21, 40, 63] Q6, Q14, Q27