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Table 3 Specificities of research instruments (31 publications reviewed)1

From: Empirical studies on informal patient payments for health care services: a systematic and critical review of research methods and instruments

Classification category Sub-categories N Reference index in Appendix 1
Groups of questions on informal patient payments for general public and patients Incidents of informal payments 20 1,2,3,7,9,10,12,15,16,17,18,20,21,22,23,24,26,27, 29,30
  Types of informal payments 14 1,2,3,10,11,15,17,18,20,21,23,24,26,27
  Beneficiary of informal payments 16 1,2,3,10,11,12,15,17,18,20,21,23,24,26,29,30
  Moment of informal payments 4 2,10,17,20
  Magnitude of informal payments 19 1,2,3,4,5,9,10,12,14,15,16,18,20,21,22,23,24,29,30
  Reasons for informal payments 10 2,3,10,13,17,20,21,23,24,28
  Perceived effect of informal payments 3 2,13,20
  Attitudes towards informal payments 7 2,7,10,20,21,22,23
Groups of questions on informal patient payments for providers and officials Incidents of informal payments 2 24,25
  Types of informal payments 4 20,24,25,31
  Moment of informal payments 1 20
  Frequency of informal payments 1 31
  Magnitude of informal payments 2 6,31
  Reasons for informal payments 6 13,19,20,23,24,25
  Attitudes toward informal payments 6 17,19,20,23,24,25
  Perceived effect of informal payments 1 13
  Mechanism of informal payments 3 17,19,24
  Reduction of informal payments 1 13
Pilot and pre-tests of the research instrument Pilot study 10 1,7,13,16,20,21,25,26,28,30
  Pre-test 2 7,17
  Not presented 19 2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,14,15,18,19,22,23,24,27,29,31
Cross-national specificity of the research instrument Backward translation 3 2,16,25
  Country specific part 2 2,16
  Not presented 2 9,21
Recall period of the experience or the general public and the patients Less than 1 month 1 18
  1-5 months 9 1,2,5,7,9,11,14,15,17
  6-11 months 5 15,18,20,26,27
  12 months and more 11 3,4,5,9,11,12,16,18,22,29,30
  Other (last visit, 3 last visits) 3 2,7,24
  No recall period (next visit) 2 7,20
  Not clear 6 10,13,21,23,25,28
Recall period of the experience for providers and officials Previous week 1 31
  2 years 1 25
  Not clear or not applicable 9 6,13,17,19,20,23,24,26,28
  1. 1One publication can be associated with more than one sub-category.