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Table 3 Univariate differences in mean values between inpatient and community staff. Number of items in parenthesis. Mann-Whitney

From: Qualified and Unqualified (N-R C) mental health nursing staff - minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi-centre study

   Variable definitions Nurses Unqualified  
MBI Emotional exhaustion Feelings of being emotionally overextended and exhausted 15.6 (8.9) 15.7 (10.1) - .078; p = .94
  Depersonalization Unfeeling and impersonal responses towards recipients of services 3.6 (4.7) 5.5 (5.7) - 1.63; p = .10
  Personal accomplishment Feelings of competence and achievement in one's work 36.3 (7.4) 37.3 (7.8) - 1.11; p = .27
MHPSSa) Workload Too much work work, different tasks, lack of time, too long hours (6) 1.05 (.70) .94 (.61) - .848; p = .40
  Client related difficulties Dealing with suffering, small improvement, demanding clients, threats (6) 1.01 (.56) .89 (.59) - 1.52; p = .13
  Organizational structure and processes Lack of support from managers, poor management, organizational problems, structure and policies (6) 1.02 (.78) 1.01 (.79) - .124; p = .90
  Relationships and conflicts with other professionals Conflicts with other professions, conflicting roles, criticism, multidisciplinary teams, difficult colleagues (6) .62 (.55) .75 (.64) - 1.14; p = .25
  Lack of resources Inadequate staffing, physical environment, training opportunities (6) 1.12 (.62) 1.02 (.73) - 1.53; p = .18
  Professional self doubt Inadequately skilled, own capabilities, doubt about therapeutic effectiveness, keeping up to date, fear of making mistakes (6) .96 (.59) .98 (.70) - .164; p = .87
  Home-work conflict Not enough time with family, personal vs professional role (6) .62 (.58) .61 (.51) - .232; p = .88
  MHPSS total Overall stress scores based on above factors (6) .91 (.46) .88 (.52) - .335; p = .74
Agervold Physical environment Noise, temperature, air, general quality (5) 1.70 (1.50) 1.54 (1.29) - .455; p = .65
  Social relations1) Cliques, conflict, quarrelling, lack of agreement (5) .87 (.9) 1.21 (1.4) - 1.91; p = .05
  Work pressure Being busy, breaks, fulfil tasks, has to take work home (4) 1.88 (1.04) 1.80 (1.04) - .537; p = .59
  Work demands 2) Concentration, recalls, task difficulty, accessible solutions, 3.39 (.90) 2.88 (1.17) - 3.25; p = .001
  Control of your work Influence of own work, pace, autonomy, planning (4) 1.01 (1.29) 1.24 (1.25) - 1.59; p = .10
  Influence and co-determination3) Influence with regard to changes, organisation of the work, economy, strategies, allocation of resources (5) 2.04 (1.51) 2.46 (1.52) - 1.76; p = .08
  Management style Favouritism, criticism, inaccessible management, access to leaders (5) 1.24 (1.55) 1.25 (1.49) - .210; p = .83
  Work role Quality of rules, clear/unclear instructions, information, (5) 1.47 (1.38) 1.33 (1.37) - .760; p = .45
  Personal development at work Developing own capabilities, personal development, learning (5) .35 (.82) .74 (1.34) - 1.63; p = .10
  Contact Contact with colleagues during work, cooperation, social relations (5) .86 (1.21) .86 (1.05) -. 633; p = .86
  Work orientation and motivation Stimulating work, importance of salary, proud of the work (5) .91 (1.00) .99 (1.25) - .180; p = .86
  Acting possibilities b) Change bad working conditions, help and support from the management and from colleagues (3) 3.30 (1.55) 3.15 (1.72) - .556; p = .58
  Health and well-being Work) c) Need to relax, concerns, problems due to incompetence, motivation (5) 2.43 (1.11) 2.37 (1.08) - .233; p = .82
  Health and well-being General d) (Restlessness, irritation, depressiveness, vertigo, heart beat, pains; seldom to almost daily (10) 4.32 (3.72) 4.08 (3.15) - .157; p = .88
  Bullying Criticism, ridiculing, being excluded, rumours (12) .83 (1.60) 1.28 (2.33) - 1.01; p = .31
  1. 1) Z - 1.91, p = .06
  2. 2) Z - 3.25, p = .001
  3. 3) Z - 1.76 p = .08
  4. a) (No = 0/yes = 1)
  5. b) (4-point scale from "Bad" to "Very good")
  6. c) (No = 0/yes = 1)
  7. d) (4-point scale from "Never/seldom" to "Almost every day")