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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants in usual care (n = 145) and ICDMS (n = 185) groups.

From: Protocol and baseline data from The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service evaluation study: a health services intervention study for diabetes care

  Usual Care ICDMS P
Age in years, mean (standard deviation (SD)) 62.9 (11.6) 59.4 (13.4) 0.01
Duration of diagnosed diabetes in years, mean (SD) 13.7 (0.9) 12.8 (0.8) 0.47
Diabetes treatment      0.68
   Non-pharmacological 5 (4%) 5 (3%)  
   Oral hyperglycaemics 61 (46%) 68 (41%)  
   Oral hyperglycaemics and insulin 41 (31%) 62 (37%)  
   Insulin only 25 (19%) 32 (19%)  
Sex (male) 93 (64%) 83 (45%) 0.001
Country of origin      0.30
   Australia 87 (61%) 78 (51%)  
   UK and Ireland 13 (9%) 17 (11%)  
   New Zealand 9 (6%) 7 (5%)  
   Europe 12 (8%) 12 (8%)  
   Asia 9 (6%) 13 (9%)  
   Other 13 (9%) 26 (17%)  
Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander 3 (2%) 8 (4%) 0.36
Smoking      0.74
   Never 55 (42%) 64 (39%)  
   Ex-smoker 59 (45%) 74 (45%)  
   Current smoker 17 (13%) 26 (16%)  
Education level      0.51
   No formal qualifications 36 (27%) 36 (23%)  
   School/Intermediate Certificate 25 (19%) 34 (21%)  
   Higher School Certificate 25 (19%) 40 (25%)  
   Diploma or Apprenticeship 35 (27%) 42 (26%)  
   University Degree 11 (8%) 8 (5%)  
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 31.8 (6.3) 33.3 (8.3) 0.08
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 91.5 (22.5) 91.0 (25.9) 0.85
HbA1c (%), mean (SD) 7.9 (1.9) 8.5 (1.9) 0.001
HbA1c ≤ 7% 54 (38%) 37 (22%) 0.003
Sitting systolic BP (mmHg), mean (SD) 140 (19) 130 (16) <0.001
Sitting diastolic BP (mmHg), mean (SD) 77 (11) 72 (11) <0.001
Blood Pressure ≤ 130/80 mmHg, mean 48 (33%) 99 (56%) <0.001
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SD) 4.2 (1.1) 4.3 (1.1) 0.47
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SD) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.4) 0.69
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SD) 2.5 (2.4) 2.4 (0.8) 0.50
LDL-cholesterol ≤ 2.5 (mmol/L) 86 (67%) 96 (63%) 0.62
Triglycerides, mean (SD) 1.9 (1.5) 2.3 (4.1) 0.37
Neuropathy 73 (56%) 53 (31%) <0.001
Retinopathy 53 (41%) 36 (33%) 0.28
Ischaemic heart disease 38 (34%) 56 (39%) 0.51
  1. Variables in usual care group with missing data: 1 observation missing for HbA1c; 3 observations missing for triglycerides; 5 observations missing for Aboriginality; 11 observations missing for duration of diabetes and HDL-cholesterol; 13 observations missing for diabetes treatment, country of origin, and highest education level; 14 observations missing for smoking and retinopathy; 15 observations missing for neuropathy; 16 observations missing for LDL-cholesterol; and 33 observations missing for ischaemic heart disease.
  2. Variables in ICDMS group with missing data: 5 observations missing for Aboriginality; 8 observations missing for weight and BMI; 9 observations missing for blood pressure; 12 observations missing for neuropathy; 14 observations missing for total cholesterol; 15 observations missing for triglycerides; 16 observations missing for HbA1c; 18 observations missing for diabetes treatment; 21 observations missing for country of origin and smoking status; 25 observations missing for highest education level; 29 observations missing for HDL-cholesterol; 33 observations missing for LDL-cholesterol; 40 observations missing for ischaemic heart disease; 41 observations missing for duration of diabetes; and 76 observations missing for retinopathy.