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Table 3 Adjusted associations between PCP and specialty visits and ACSC hospitalization among urban and rural dual eligibles age 65 and over, excluding nursing facility users

From: The association between primary care use and potentially-preventable hospitalization among dual eligibles age 65 and over

Variable Urban Rural
N (person-years) 6,438,381 1,354,892
PCP visits −0.056*** (0.002) − 0.002 (0.005)
Outpatient specialist visits −0.059*** (0.002) − 0.089*** (0.006)
Age 0.066*** (0.001) 0.067*** (0.003)
Male 0.011 (0.012) 0.596*** (0.051)
Race/Ethnicity
 Black 1.408*** (0.035) −1.039*** (0.094)
 Asian/Pacific Islander −0.522*** (0.027) −0.762*** (0.183)
 AI/AN 1.187*** (0.140) 0.934*** (0.171)
 Hispanic 0.473*** (0.028) −0.635*** (0.107)
 Other −0.815*** (0.075) −0.708** (0.330)
Chronic Conditions
 1–3 conditions 1.019*** (0.012) 1.277*** (0.031)
 4–6 conditions 3.715*** (0.019) 5.024*** (0.050)
 7–9 conditions 10.990*** (0.037) 15.320*** (0.093)
 10+ conditions 26.010*** (0.083) 34.320*** (0.198)
Disability Status
 With Disability 0.930*** (0.026) 0.227*** (0.055)
Year
 2014 −0.281*** (0.026) − 0.493*** (0.067)
 2015 −0.495*** (0.027) −1.042*** (0.068)
 2016 −0.469*** (0.027) −1.077*** (0.069)
 2017 −0.671*** (0.027) −1.247*** (0.070)
 2018 −0.890*** (0.028) −1.608*** (0.071)
 Constant −5.049*** (0.107) −4.162*** (0.262)
  1. Note: Reference categories are female, non-Hispanic White, 0 chronic conditions, and year 2013. Coefficients are interpreted as percentage point changes with probability of outcome scaled from 0 to 100. For example, the coefficient of − 0.056 for PCP visits among urban dual eligibles means that each PCP visit is associated a lower risk of ACSC hospitalization by 0.056 percentage points
  2. **p < 0.05
  3. ***p < 0.01, Robust standard errors in parentheses