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Table 4 Main effect by two-way ANOVA between profession

From: Healthcare professionals’ perceptions of patient safety culture and teamwork in intrapartum care: a cross-sectional study

  Midwives (M) n = 101 Physicians (P) n = 44 Nursing assistants (NA) n = 28 F P value Tukey’s HSD Effect size5
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
S-Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture
Unit level dimensions
  Communication openness1 3.7 (.63) 3.7 (.60) 3.7 (.64) F(2,164) = .10 .903   
  Feedback and communication about error1 3.9 (.67) 3.6 (.70) 3.9 (.81) F(2,164) = 1.37 .258   
  Nonpunitive response to error2 3.8 (.77) 3.8 (.81) 3.8 (.71) F(2,164) = .33 .722   
  Organizational learning – continuous improvement2 3.6 (.58) 3.7 (.62) 3.8 (.74) F(2,164) = .87 .423   
  Staffing2 3.3 (.89) 2.9 (.99) 3.6 (.65) F(2,165) = 5.16 .0074 NA > P (p = .002) .06
  Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety2 3.7 (.84) 3.7 (.67) 4.1 (.78) F(2,164) = 1.46 .235   
  Teamwork within units2 4.3 (.51) 4.1 (.46) 4.3 (.59) F(2,165) = 1.96 .144   
  Information and support to patients and family who have suffered an adverse event2 3.8 (.58) 4.1 (.64) 3.9 (.73) F(2.165) = 4.73 .010 P > M (p = .012) .05
  Information and support to staff who have been involved in an adverse event2 3.5 (.87) 3.6 (.85) 4.0 (.95) F(2,164) = 2.15 .120   
Hospital level dimensions
  Handoffs and transitions2 3.7 (.63) 3.5 (.80) 3.8 (.73) F(2,166) = 1.20 .303   
  Management support for patient safety2 2.8 (.85) 3.2 (.83) 3.0 (.80) F(2,165) = 2.70 .070   
  Teamwork across units2 3.4 (.68) 3.7 (.60) 3.5 (.86) F(2,166) = 2.88 .059   
Outcome dimensions
  Frequency of events reported1 3.2 (.76) 3.1 (.87) 3.5 (.87) F(2,163) = 2.32 .101   
  Overall perceptions of patient safety2 3.8 (.67) 3.7 (.78) 4.1 (.69) F(2,165) = 2.88 .059   
TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire n = 102 n = 44 n = 30  
  Team Structure3 4.0 (.61) 3.7 (.83) 4.3 (.67) F(2,168) = 7.21 .001 NA > P (p = .000) M > P (p = .022) .08
  Leadership3 3.5 (.93) 3.8 (.73) 4.1 (.97) F(2,168) = 3.03 .051   
  Situation monitoring3 4.0 (.58) 3.7 (.59) 3.9 (.72) F(2,167) = 1.62 .202   
  Mutual support3 3.9 (.62) 3.6 (.69) 3.9 (.71) F(2,167) = 2.27 .107   
  Communication3 4.0 (.57) 3.7 (.68) 3.9 (.62) F(2,168) = 2.05 .132   
  1. 1Scale ranged from 1 = ‘Never’ to 5 = ‘Always’
  2. 2Scale ranged from 1 = ‘Strongly disagree’ to 5 = ‘Strongly agree’
  3. 3Scale ranged from 1 = ‘Strongly disagree with the statement’ to 5 = ‘Strongly agree with the statement’
  4. 4Levene’s test was significant: p < 01
  5. 5Effect size with partial eta squared