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Table 2 Summary of out-of-pocket expenditures for c-section hospitalization, direct and indirect costs by paying status (USD)a

From: Does community-based health insurance protect women from financial catastrophe after cesarean section? A prospective study from a rural hospital in Rwanda

  Total
Median (IQR)
(n = 340)
Ubudehe
Category 1
Median (IQR)
(n = 50)
Ubudehe
Category 2/3
Median (IQR)
(n = 50)
No Insurance
Median (IQR)
(n = 10)
Private Insurance
Median (IQR)
(n = 20)
Direct Medical
 Consumables $2.51 (1.92–3.03) $0.00 $2.56 (2.20–2.94) $21.59 (14.49–27.58) $3.94 (3.23–4.30)
 Medications $2.12 (1.57–2.58) $0.00 $2.21 (1.82–2.57) $17.87 (15.05–25.18) $2.72 (2.52–3.31)
 Procedure $1.91 (1.91–1.91) $0.00 $1.91 (1.91–1.91) $66.97 (66.97–66.97) $7.68 (7.34–7.68)
 Labs $1.18 (0.23–1.18) $0.00 $1.18 (0.39–1.18) $27.18 (13.55–40.81) $4.44 (1.47–4.44)
 Consultations $0.31 (0.27–0.38) $0.00 $0.31 (0.31–0.35) $7.69 (7.39–10.18) $1.09 (0.97–1.20)
 Nursing care $0.27 (0.15–0.35) $0.00 $0.28 (0.21–0.34) $9.63 (7.18–10.66) $1.09 (0.80–1.19)
 Imaging $0.25 (0.00–0.25) $0.00 $0.25 (0.00–0.25) $0.00 (0.00–6.42) $0.85 (0.00–0.92)
 Hospitalization $0.22 (0.11–0.28) $0.00 $0.22 (0.17–0.28) $5.82 (3.88–7.27) $0.70 (0.62–0.90)
TOTAL $9.36 (7.83–10.52) $0.00 $9.53 (8.54–10.38) $158.89 (143.41–173.33) $22.45 (21.28–24.72)
Direct Non-Medical
 Food $4.68 (2.93–5.85) $3.51 (2.34–5.85) $4.10 (2.93–5.85) $2.34 (2.34–2.93) $9.60 (5.85–11.71)
 Transportation to health center $1.17 (0.00–2.34) $1.17 (0.00–1.76) $1.17 (0.00–2.34) $1.76 (1.32–1.90) $0.59 (0.00–0.59)
 Transportation to hospital $1.83 (0.00–2.81) $0.05 (0.00–2.26) $1.87 (0.00–2.81) $18.73 (3.71–28.09) $0.00 (0.00–2.02)
 Caregiver $2.34 (0.00–5.85) $1.87 (0.00–5.71) $2.34 (0.00–5.33) $0.70 (0.00–1.11) $6.44 (3.07–11.91)
TOTAL DIRECT $19.29 (15.54–25.22) $8.08 (5.27–15.22) $20.18 (16.69–25.14) $187.25 (156.36–208.95) $42.55 (29.37–51.16)
Indirect
 Lost wages $9.31 (6.52–15.52) $9.31 (6.52–14.90) $9.31 (6.52–15.52) $6.52 (6.52–8.61) $17.07 (0.00–31.04)
TOTAL WITH INDIRECT $29.78 (22.29–39.81) $16.33 (14.13–25.38) $30.47 (24.66–39.16) $201.94 (177.54–221.37) $55.44 (44.74–69.78)
  1. aConverted to USD using nominal exchange rate