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Table 1 Multilevel challenges and responses to supporting PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on the socio-ecological model framework

From: From crisis to crisis: impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with HIV and HIV/AIDS service organizations in Indiana

Individual Interpersonal Organizational Community Public Policy
• High COVID-19 risk perception
• Pre-existing mental health conditions exacerbated
• Decreased medication compliance and lack of recent lab results
• Employment instability
• Return to care with increased free-time due to unemployment
• Isolation from fellow PLWH
• Resentment towards service providers due to in-person service restrictions
• Preparedness from experience with previous HIV outbreaks
• New intakes and face-to-face interactions severely limited
• Virtual intakes and follow-ups
• Geographical and technological contact limitations with clients
• Tablets for telehealth
• No-contact home visits and at-will pickup for supplies and medications
• Rental assistance
• Initial decrease in HIV testing
• Implemented self-swab testing, outdoor testing, and physical barriers
• Local private sector financial and material assistance
• Collaboration with jails and treatment centers for HIV test kits and virtual instruction and education
• In-person requirement for quarterly review suspended
• Laptop restrictions for work-related activity suspended
• Sufficient CARES Act funding for clients
• Lack of funding for operating expenses