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Table 3 Stages of change according to lifestyle comparing intervention and non-intervention municipalities, all participants and restricted to participants obtaining motivational counselling in intervention municipalities, additionally stratified by presence/absence of at least one self-reported doctor’s diagnosis (diabetes, hypertension, CVD) overall and by presence/absence of at least one self-reported doctor’s diagnosis (diabetes, hypertension, CVD)

From: Non-communicable disease prevention in Kosovo: quantitative and qualitative assessment of uptake and barriers of an intervention for healthier lifestyles in primary healthcare

All participants
  Current Smokersa
(n = 155)*
Physically inactivea
(n = 374)*
Unhealthy eatersa
(n = 831)*
Alcohol consumersa
(n = 34)*
Stage of change Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities
Yesc Noc Yesc Noc Yesc Noc Yesc Noc
Maintenance 1 (12.5) 1 (2.6) 4 (3.7) 6 (9.5) 33(22.9) 24(11.6) 7(9.5) 112(42.8) 117(13.6) 0 (0.0) 3 (25.0) 1(5.3)
Action 0 (0.0) 5 (13.1) 1 (0.9) 14(22.2) 45(31.3) 21(10.5) 20(27.8) 57(21.8) 35(7.9) 1 (33.3) 2 (16.7) 5(26.3))
Preparation 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 30(47.6) 37(25.9) 3(1.5) 44(59.5) 67(25.6) 4(0.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Contemplation 0 (0.0) 1 (2.6) 1 (0.9) 2(3.2) 4(2.8) 0(0.0) 3(4.9) 3(1.1) 2(0.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Precontemplation 7 (87.5) 31(81.6) 103 (94.5) 11(7.5) 25(17.4) 159(76.8) 0(0.0) 23(8.8) 337(68.9) 2 (66.6) 7 (58.3) 13(64.4)
Participants with at least one self-reported diagnosesb
  Current Smokersa
(n = 126)*
Physically inactivea
(n = 414)*
Unhealthy eatersa
(n = 706)*
Alcohol consumersa
(n = 26)*
Stage of change Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities
Yesc Noc Yesc Noc Yesc Noc Yesc Noc
Maintenance 1 (14.2) 1 (3.2) 2 (2.3) 6 (9.6) 28 (23.1) 21 (12.1) 7 (9.5) 87 (40.6) 104 (24.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 0 (0.0)
Action 0 (0.0) 4 (12.9) 1 (1.1) 14 (22.5) 38 (31.4) 17 (9.8) 19 (26.0) 48 (22.4) 32 (7.6) 1 (33.3) 2 (22.2) 4 (28.5)
Preparation 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 29 (46.7) 33 (27.2) 2 (1.1) 44 (60.2) 61 (28.5) 4 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Contemplation 0 (0.0) 1 (3.2) 1 (1.1) 2 (3.2) 4 (3.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (4.1) 3 (1.4) 2 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Precontemplation 6 (85.7) 25 (80.6) 84 (95.4) 11 (17.7) 18 (14.8) 133 (76.8) 0 (0.0) 15 (7.0) 277 (66.1) 2 (66.6) 6 (66.6) 10 (71.4)
Participants without any self-reported diagnosisb
  Current Smokersa
(n = 29)
Physically inactivea
(n = 58)
Unhealthy eatersa
(n = 125)
Alcohol consumersa
(n= 8)
Stage of change Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities Intervention Municipalities Non-Intervention Municipalities
Yesc Noc Yesc Noc Yesc Noc Yesc Noc
Maintenance 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (9.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (21.7) 3 (8.8) 0 (0.0) 25 (52.0) 13 (17.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (66.6) 1 (20.0)
Action 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (30.4) 4 (11.7) 1(100) 9 (18.7) 3 (3.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (20.0)
Preparation 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (100) 4 (17.3) 1 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 6 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Contemplation 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Precontemplation 1 (100) 6 (85.7) 19 (90.4) 0 (0.0) 7 (30.4) 26 (76.4) 0 (0.0) 8 (16.6) 60 (78.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (33.3) 3 (60.0)
  1. aAnalysis restricted to: current smokers; physical inactivity, unhealthy eaters; alcohol consumers at follow-up, respectively. Only analyzing participants who are within the 5 categories of stages of change (‘Relapse’ and ‘Refused’ categories are not included in the analysis). Stages of change: Follow-up 1 data
  2. bSelf-reported doctor’s diagnosis at either Baseline or Follow-up 1
  3. cYes - Received at least 1 motivational counselling session; No - Did not receive any motivational counselling session